01. Speed of Light

6A01.10 speed of light Demonstrate speed of light by the path difference method with a fast pulser and fast oscilloscope.
6A01.10 speed of light A fast pulser is used to demonstrate speed of light by the path difference method.
6A01.10 velocity of light The displacement of a pulse from a fast pulser is viewed on a sampling oscilloscope as the path length is changed. Insert different media in the path.
6A01.10 speed of light - moving reflector Fancy speed of light apparatus fully documented. Diagrams, Pictures.
6A01.11 pulser circuit A pulser circuit for the moving reflector speed of light apparatus.
6A01.11 speed of light - fast pulse Use a high repetition rate pulsed light from TRW to demonstrate the speed of light.
6A01.11 pulser circuit An LED pulser circuit that emits a 20 ns pulse.
6A01.11 pulser circuit A light pulser circuit based on the MV 10A LED.
6A01.11 speed of light - N2 laser pulser A N2 pulsed laser is used in the moving reflector setup.
6A01.12 speed of light - spark source Construction and properties of a spark light source.
6A01.15 microwave moving reflector A small microwave pulse generator gives short pulses.
6A01.20 speed of light - two path
6A01.20 speed of light - two path Fast flash through two paths to a photomultiplier tube. Diagrams, Pictures.
6A01.21 speed of light - two path A spot of the display trace of a fast oscilloscope is passed through two different paths to a photomultiplier tube whose output is displayed on the same trace. Diagram, Picture.
6A01.25 errata - corrected diagram Corrected diagram for figure 2 in AJP 37(8),818 (1969).
6A01.25 speed on light The MV50 LED is pulsed in this simple time of flight measurement.
6A01.25 speed of light - minimal apparatus An inexpensive time of flight apparatus using a strobed LED and voltmeter.
6A01.25 speed of light - time of flight An acoustico-optic modulator chops a laser beam in a time of flight setup.
6A01.25 speed of light choppers Use a 250 tooth commercial gear as a light chopper.
6A01.26 speed of light - phase shift Many circuits are given. Features a solid-state electro-optical light modulator to replace the Kerr cell.
6A01.27 optical radar A commercial (Optitron Inc.) speed of light apparatus with an ultraviolet pulser.
6A01.30 speed of light - rotating mirror
6A01.30 speed of light - rotating mirror The position of the reflected image from a rotating mirror is measured for clockwise and counterclockwise rotations. Diagram, Appendix, p. 1353.
6A01.31 speed of light - rotating mirror Photodiode detector with the rotating mirror.
6A01.31 speed of light - rotating mirror A laser beam is used with the rotating mirror method. Detector circuits given.
6A01.32 speed of light - combined method A rotating mirror chops the laser beam and a beam splitter gives near and far paths.
6A01.36 Leybold speed of light modification When both sides of the rotating mirror are exposed, deflections as large as 2 cm can be observed with the unaided eye.
6A01.36 Leybold speed of light rotation rate Instead of comparing the motor sound to a tuning fork, use a microphone to pick up the motor sound and display it on an oscilloscope, use Lissajous figures with a reference.
6A01.36 more Leybold improvements Use a solar cell with the AJP 32(7),567 technique.
6A01.36 Leybold speed of light improvements Find the lateral displacement of the returning beam with a photomultiplier on a carriage.
6A01.36 Leybold speed of light improvements Use a microphone, oscillator, and oscilloscope to measure the motor frequency of the Leybold speed of light apparatus. Reference: AJP 29(10),711.
6A01.38 speed of light - microwave interfer. The Doppler beat frequency from the detector is used to drive a spark generator.
6A01.40 speed of light - models Set up mirrors on the lab bench to help students visualize the standard methods. Do the sound analog (S-81). Set up a rotating mirror.
6A01.50 group velocity of light Measure the speed of light to 0.02% and verify the relationship between group and phase velocity. Low cost circuit is given.

02. Straight Line Propagation

6A02.10 light in a vacuum
6A02.10 light in a vacuum Place a flashing light in the bell jar to emphasize the point.
6A02.15 straight line propagation - shadows
6A02.15 straight line propagation of light A good point source shows straight line propagation of light by shadow projection.
6A02.15 straight line propagation Cast shadows with a point source.
6A02.16 propagation star An intense radiation point source limited by a star shaped aperture melts a star shaped pattern on a paraffin backed black foil.
6A02.35 chalk dust

10. Reflection From Flat Surfaces

6A10.05 optical design software Use commercial optical design software to model and display geometrical optics.
6A10.09 reflection model A string and pulley arrangement shows the minimum path for reflection from a flat surface.
6A10.10 blackboard optics - plane mirror
6A10.10 blackboard optics - plane mirror Blackboard optics - plane mirror.
6A10.11 optical disk with flat mirror
6A10.11 optical disk with flat mirror Use a single beam with the optical disk and a flat mirror element.
6A10.11 optical disk with flat mirror Turn the optical disk with a single beam of light hitting the mirror.
6A10.11 angle of incidence, reflection Aim a beam of light at a mirror at the center of a disc, rotate the disc.
6A10.15 laser and flat mirror
6A10.15 laser and flat mirror Shine a laser at a flat mirror on the lecture bench and use chalk dust to make the beam visible.
6A10.18 microwave reflection
6A10.18 microwave reflection Reflect a microwave beam off a metal plate into a receiver.
6A10.20 diffuse and specular reflection
6A10.20 smooth and rough surface reflection Chalk dust sprinkled on a mirror blurs the image of a light reflecting onto the wall.
6A10.20 diffuse/specular reflection Show a beam on light reflecting off a mirror on an optics board. Replace the mirror with a sheet of paper.
6A10.21 diffuse reflection Hold frosted glass at various angles in a beam of light focused on the wall.
6A10.22 aluminum foil reflection
6A10.22 aluminum foil reflection Same as AJP 50(5),473.
6A10.22 scattering with aluminum foil Reflect light off a sheet of aluminum foil, then crumple and flatten it to create many facets.
6A10.24 reflection - normal and grazing Place a lantern and piece of clear glass midway between two walls and show the difference between reflecting by grazing on one wall and normal reflection on the other. Also compare glass and silvered at grazing and normal incidence.
6A10.25 ripple tank reflection
6A10.30 corner cube
6A10.30 corner reflector Three reflectors are placed on the inside corner of a box.
6A10.30 corner cube Two mirrors at 90 degrees or three mirrors mutually perpendicular.
6A10.30 corner reflection Look at your image in a corner cube.
6A10.31 large corner cube
6A10.31 large corner cube
6A10.31 large corner cube Use large mirror wall tiles (12 in sq) to make a large corner reflector.
6A10.33 signaling mirror A plane mirror with a small unsilvered area in the center is used for signaling. Diagram.
6A10.35 perversion Perversion can be demonstrated in public with a license plate and a plane mirror. Sorry, no inversion.
6A10.37 parity reversal in a mirror
6A10.37 parity reversal in a mirror View a Cartesian coordinate system in a mirror.
6A10.40 angled mirrors
6A10.40 angled mirrors
6A10.40 mirrors at an angle A candle placed between angled mirrors forms multiple images.
6A10.40 angled mirrors Two hinged front surface mirrors show multiple images of an object placed between them. Diagram.
6A10.40 hinged mirrors Mirrors angled at 60 degrees give one object and five images arranged in a hexagon.
6A10.41 hinged mirrors Place a light between two mirrors hinged together and standing vertically. Place a sheet of clear glass between the mirrors forming an isosceles triangle. A few more variations are given.
6A10.42 hinged mirrors, kaleidoscopes Hinged mirrors are shown at 60 and 30 degrees along with 60 and 30 degree kaleidoscopes.
6A10.43 angled mirrors - laser spots The hyperboloid of revolution formed by the successive reflections of a laser beam on two plane angled mirrors is explained by a simple geometrical method.
6A10.44 hinged mirrors theory The theorem of Rosendahl is applied to the hinged mirror problem to predict the number of images formed at various inclinations.
6A10.45 parallel mirrors
6A10.45 parallel mirrors An infinite number of images are formed with a candle between parallel images.
6A10.45 barbershop mirrors Place objects between parallel mirrors and view them over one of the mirrors.
6A10.50 full view mirror
6A10.50 full view mirror
6A10.50 height of a mirror for full view Shades are pulled up from the bottom and down from the top covering a mirror until a person can just see their entire height.
6A10.51 large plane mirror A three foot plane mirror is used to show all of a six foot person.
6A10.60 cold candle
6A10.60 cold candle
6A10.60 candle in a glass of water A candle in front of a plate glass forms an image in a glass of water behind.
6A10.60 plane mirror A candle is placed in front of a sheet of glass and a beaker of water an equal distance behind. Place the entire apparatus on a rotating table.
6A10.60 location of image Place a sheet of glass between a burning candle and a glass of water so the image of the candle appears in the glass.
6A10.65 half silvered mirror box
6A10.65 Mirror Box Two people look into opposite ends of a box containing a half silvered mirror in the center. As the light on one end is dimmed, the light on the other brightens, causing metamorphosis.
6A10.76 sawblade optics Keep the sawblade perpendicular by lining up the reflection of the board in the sawblade.

20. Reflection from Curved Surfaces

6A20.10 blackboard optics - curved mirrors
6A20.10 blackboard optics - concave mirror Blackboard optics - concave mirror.
6A20.10 blackboard optics - convex mirror Blackboard optics - convex mirror.
6A20.10 concave and convex mirrors Shine parallel beams at convex and concave mirrors. Use a thread screen for display.
6A20.11 optical disc with curved mirrors
6A20.11 optical disc with curved mirrors Use the optical disc with multiple beams and curved lens elements.
6A20.11 optical disc - curved mirror Mount either concave or convex mirrors in the optical disc.
6A20.11 large optical disc A large translucent screen and large lens elements scale up the Hartl optical disc. Diagrams.
6A20.15 parallel lasers and curved mirrors
6A20.15 parallel lasers and curved mirrors Shine parallel lasers at converging and diverging mirrors and use chalk dust to make the beams visible.
6A20.20 spherical abberation in a mirror
6A20.20 spherical abberation in a mirror Shine parallel rays at spherical and parabolic mirror elements, noting the difference in aberration.
6A20.21 off focal point source A picture of the caustic formed by parallel laser rays incident on a parabolic mirror at 30 degrees.
6A20.24 concave mirrors - caustics Directions for making a large cylindrical or parabolic mirror element.
6A20.26 variable curved mirrors Aluminized mylar stretched over a coffee can makes a variable positive or negative mirror when the can is pressurized or evacuated.
6A20.27 elliptical tank A filament lamp is placed at one focus of an elliptically shaped wall of shiny aluminum and chalk dust shows the image at the other focus.
6A20.28 ellipsoidal mirror Compare the light intensity from the lamps at the near and far focus of an ellipsoidal mirror. Directions for making the mirror element. Diagram.
6A20.30 mirror & rose
6A20.30 mirror & rose
6A20.30 flower in a vase A hidden flower at the center of curvature of a parabolic mirror appears in an empty vase.
6A20.30 lamp in the socket A 40 W lamp is projected onto an empty socket.
6A20.30 mirror and rose Hints for projecting a real image (rose) on an object (vase).
6A20.31 cold candle Hold your finger in the inverted image of a candle burning at the center of curvature of a parabolic mirror.
6A20.31 large concave mirror Hold a candle and other objects at the center of curvature of a large convex mirror.
6A20.35 optic mirage
6A20.35 optic mirage Same as Oc-7.
6A20.35 optic mirage Derivation of additional "magic separations" of the Optic Mirage that give images.
6A20.35 optic mirage Two concave mirrors face each other. Images of objects resting on the bottom mirror appear at the center hole of the top mirror.
6A20.36 shine an light on the Optic Mirage Shine a light on an shiny object in the Optic Mirage and the reflections will look real.
6A20.37 red ball in hemisphere Looking at a red ball pendulum suspended from the rim of a hemispherical concave mirror makes one puke.
6A20.37 swinging lamp and concave mirror A lamp pendulum is swung between the center of curvature and the principle focus on a concave mirror.
6A20.40 projected arrow with mirror
6A20.40 projected arrow with mirror A converging mirror is used to project an image of an illuminated arrow onto a screen.
6A20.40 image with a concave mirror A concave mirror is used to image a lamp filament on a screen or the wall.
6A20.41 projected filament with mirror
6A20.41 projected filament with mirror A converging mirror is used to project the image of a light bulb filament onto a screen. Masks can be used to stop down the mirror.
6A20.42 rotating liquid mirror Rotate a pan of glycerine mixed with dark dye, using a lighted object as a source and ground glass screen or TV camera as a detector.
6A20.45 convex and concave mirrors
6A20.45 no image with convex mirror Try to project the image of a filament from a convex mirror.
6A20.45 convex and concave mirrors Large 16" convex and concave mirrors are shown.
6A20.45 concave and convex mirror Project a lamp image with a concave mirror, then try convex.
6A20.50 amusement park mirrors Cylindrical mirrors are made with ten inch radius of curvature.
6A20.51 convex mirror View the image of your nose in a 1/2" diameter steel ball through a short focal length lens.
6A20.60 energy at a focal point
6A20.60 lighting a cigarette Light a cigarette at the focal point of a parabolic mirror concentrating the beam of an arc light.
6A20.60 energy at a focal point Remove the projection head of an overhead projector and hold a piece of paper at the focal point until it bursts into flame.

40. Refractive Index

6A40.10 apparent depth with TV
6A40.10 apparent depth with tv camera Focus a camera on a spot and then note how far the camera is moved to refocus when a clear plastic block is placed on the spot.
6A40.11 apparent depth Look down into a tall graduate and estimate the distance to a coin at the bottom.
6A40.12 focusing telescope method Move a telescope back and forth on a optical bench to focus on the front and then on the back of a block of plexiglass or container of liquid.
6A40.13 microwave index of refraction Index of refraction is determined by measuring the distance between minima with a movable plane mirror in a container of liquid. Diagram.
6A40.15 refractive index of ice Freeze water by pumping in a hollow acrylic prism and measure the minimum deviation.
6A40.20 count fringes
6A40.20 count fringes
6A40.20 Michelson index of refraction Place a gas cell in one leg of the Michelson interferometer and evacuate air or let in a gas while counting fringes.
6A40.20 Michelson index of refraction Count fringes of laser light as air is let into an evacuated chamber in one leg of a Michelson interferometer.
6A40.20 Michelson index of refraction A vacuum chamber is put in one leg of a Michelson interferometer and fringes are counted as air or a gas is leaked into the chamber. Reference: TPT 6(4),176.
6A40.21 Raleigh refractometer Improvements on the Raleigh refractometer to make the fringes more visible for easier counting as the air is let back in to the tube.
6A40.25 index of refraction of He and SF6 In addition to letting air (21 fringes) into one arm of the Michelson interferometer, let in He (3 fringes) and SF6 (55 fringes).
6A40.30 Cheshire cat
6A40.30 disappearing eye dropper Place an eyedropper in a liquid with an index of refraction matched to the glass.
6A40.31 more Christiansen filters A table of Christiansen filter pairs. See AJP 25,440 (1957)
6A40.31 Christiansen filters A mixture of crushed glass and a liquid with the same index of refraction as glass is warmed in a container and exhibits colors. Directions for making a permanent display. Reference.
6A40.36 grating pattern shift Shine a laser beam through a grating so the beam splits the air/liquid interface and measure the difference in the diffraction pattern for the light passing through the air and liquid.
6A40.36 grating in aquarium Mount a transmission grating inside an aquarium and measure the diffracted laser beam on the other end with and without water in the tank.
6A40.37 refraction with shadow and cube A shadow projected through a glass cube has a different length than normal.
6A40.38 refractive index of beer The ratio of the apparent diameter to the actual diameter of a stick of pepperoni in a glass of beer gives the index of refraction. In the classroom, use a mesh projected on the wall and measure offset of a vertical wire.
6A40.39 Abbe refractometer A liquid separates the hypotenuses of two right angle prisms.
6A40.40 variable index of refraction tank
6A40.40 variable index of refraction tank Shine a laser beam through an aquarium with an unstirred sugar solution.
6A40.40 variable index of refraction tank How to make a tank with varying concentrations of benzol and CS2.
6A40.42 gradient index lens A small gradient index lens is passed around the class. It looks like a glass rod but one sees an inverted image when looking along the axis.
6A40.45 mirage
6A40.45 mirage How to heat a long plate to demonstrate the mirage effect.
6A40.46 mirage The image from a slide projector is directed just above a brass plate heated with a burner.
6A40.47 mirage with a laser A laser beam almost grazing a hot plate will show deflection when the hot plate is turned on.
6A40.47 laser beam deflection - thermal grad An apparatus for cooling a plate to deflect a laser beam downward.
6A40.47 mirage with laser A laser beam is imaged through a keyhole and the beam then passes through a 1 meter oven.
6A40.47 superior "superior" image A laser beam passing through a tank of water begins to deflect immediately when heat lamps are turned on. Images are also observed.
6A40.48 not a mirage with a laser I haven't figured this out and have to go home to eat, so maybe some other time.
6A40.49 mirage explaination note A note correcting misleading textbook explanations of the mirage.
6A40.50 oil, water, laser
6A40.60 Schlieren image
6A40.60 cheap Schlieren A small, compact, portable, and inexpensive Schlieren instrument using an ordinary lamp and a light source.
6A40.60 Schlieren, etc. Show and compare Schlieren, direct shadow, and interferometeric method of detecting small changes in the index of refraction of air. Diagrams, Details in appendix, p. 1352.
6A40.61 Schlieren image of a candle A simple arrangement with a point source, lens, and candle near the lens, aperture, and screen for lecture demonstration purposes.
6A40.61 Schlieren image of a candle Laser light is used in Schlieren projection of a candle flame.
6A40.62 single mirror Schlieren system Two Ronchi rulings are placed at the radius of curvature of a spherical mirror.
6A40.63 Schmidt-Cassegrain schlieren Two Schmidt-Cassegraion telescopes are used to make a simple inline Schlieren system.
6A40.65 Toepler Schlieren apparatus A simpler Schlieren setup with colors indicating amount of deviation.
6A40.67 refraction by gases Shadow project the Bunsen burner (H-137), hold a hot object in one arm on the Michelson interferometer.
6A40.70 short beer
6A40.70 tall beer Properly designed glassware makes the beer look taller.
6A40.70 cylindrical lens and short beers Analysis of the apparent inner diameter thick cylinder of a liquid of different index of refraction.
6A40.70 short beers Paint the inside of the illusion cylinder, (AJP 43(8),741).
6A40.70 beer mugs Two beer mugs were found that have the same outer dimensions and both appear to hold the same amount of beer when full, but actually differ in volume by a factor of two.
6A40.70 short beer comment Easy explanation.
6A40.90 plasma laser-beam focusing An expanded laser beam grazing a flat combustion flame from paint stripper is focused into a line. A second perpendicular flame gives a point.

42. Refraction at Flat Surfaces

6A42.10 blackboard optics - refraction
6A42.10 blackboard optics - refraction Blackboard optics with a single beam and a large rectangle and prism of plexiglass.
6A42.11 optical disk with glass block
6A42.11 optical disk with glass block A single beam of light on the optical disc is used to show refraction through a rectangular block of glass.
6A42.12 refraction/reflection from plastic Rotate a rectangle of plastic in a single beam of light.
6A42.15 optical disc - semicircle A single beam of light is refracted at the flat but not the curved side if it leaves along a radius.
6A42.20 refraction tank Rotate a beam of light in a tank of water containing some fluorescein.
6A42.20 refraction tank A rotatable beam of light in a tank of water containing some fluorescein.
6A42.21 Nakamara refraction tank
6A42.21 Nakamara refraction tank
6A42.22 big plastic refraction tank
6A42.24 force table refeaction tank A small refraction tank is mounted on a force table.
6A42.27 refraction Three refraction demos - optical tank, ripple tank, glass block.
6A42.30 refraction model - rolling
6A42.30 refraction model An axle with independent 1" wheels rolls down an incline with one wheel on cloth, the other on the plain board.
6A42.31 string models of refraction String models of refraction representing a water tank, prism, thin lens, comma aberration, and astigmatism are shown. Pictures, Construction details in appendix, p.1345.
6A42.32 wavefront strips model
6A42.35 ripple tank refraction
6A42.35 ripple tank refraction
6A42.40 penny in a cup
6A42.40 penny in a cup
6A42.40 seeing a coin Pour water into a beaker until a coin at the bottom previously hidden by the side is visible.
6A42.43 light in a tank
6A42.43 small refraction tank Position a lamp in an opaque tank so the filament cannot be seen, then add water until the light from the filament is seen over the edge of the tank.
6A42.45 stick in the water
6A42.45 stick in water A stick appears bent when inserted into water at an angle.
6A42.46 rugged refraction demonstration Cast a stick in a tumbler filled with clear casting resin. Pass around the class.
6A42.47 acrylic/lead glass refraction
6A42.47 acrylic/lead glass refraction Hold a stick behind stacked lead glass and acrylic blocks. The image of the stick is shifted when viewed off the normal to the surface of the blocks.
6A42.50 minimum angle of deviation
6A42.50 minimum deviation of a prism At minimum deviation light reflected off the base is parallel to that passing through an equilateral prism.
6A42.50 minimum angle of deviation Project a line filament through a large prism on a rotating platform with and without monochromatic filters. Reference: TPT 7(9),513.
6A42.51 three prism stack
6A42.51 three different prisms A stack of three prisms of different glass shows different refraction and dispersion.
6A42.55 paraffin prism and microwaves
6A42.55 paraffin prism and microwaves
6A42.55 microwave paraffin prism Determine the index of refraction of a large paraffin prism with 3.37 cm microwaves.
6A42.60 dispersion in different media A multiple element prism is made with layers of different plastic and glass.
6A42.65 dispersion of liquids A hollow prism is filled with a layer of carbon disulfide and a layer of water.

44. Total Internal Reflection

6A44.10 blackboard optics Multiple beams of light pass through large scale optical elements.
6A44.11 optical disk with prism, semicircle
6A44.11 optical disk with prism, semicircle A single beam of light on the optical disk shows total internal reflection when passed through a prism.
6A44.11 semicircular element on disc A beam of light entering a semicircular glass disc normal to the curved surface is reflected off the flat side.
6A44.20 big plastic refraction tank
6A44.20 critical angle in refraction tank A beam in a tank of water is rotated until there is total internal reflection at the surface.
6A44.20 refraction tank Adjust the path of a beam with mirrors in a tank of water with fluorescein. to show total internal reflection.
6A44.20 critical angle/ total internal refle Shine a beam through the side of a tank containing fluorescein. Rotate a mirror in the tank so the beam passes through the critical angle.
6A44.22 big plastic refraction tank
6A44.25 Snell's wheel
6A44.30 ripple tank total int. ref.
6A44.30 ripple tank total reflection Vary the angle of incidence of ripple tank waves to a boundary with water depths of 13 and 3 mm.
6A44.35 frust. tot. int. ref. see 7A50.12
6A44.40 laser and fiber optics Shine a laser into a curved plastic rod.
6A44.40 laser and fiber optics A laser is used with a bundle of fiber optics, a curled plexiglass rod, and a 1" square lean rod.
6A44.40 light pipe Light is projected down a clear plexiglass spiral.
6A44.40 curved glass tube Shine a bright light source through a curved glass tube.
6A44.40 light pipes Several light pipes and fiber optics are shown.
6A44.40 light pipes Shine a laser into a curved plastic rod.
6A44.41 optical path in fibers
6A44.41 optical path in fibers Shine a laser down a bent rectangular bar.
6A44.42 steal the signal
6A44.42 steal the signal
6A44.43 bounce around a tube A laser beam bounces around a thick walled plexiglass tube due to total internal reflection.
6A44.45 water stream and light pipe
6A44.45 water stream light pipe Shine a laser beam down the water stream issuing from the orifice of a plexiglass tank of water.
6A44.45 illuminated fountain Shine a light down a stream of water.
6A44.45 laser waterfall Shine a laser down the center of a nozzle and it follows the water stream.
6A44.50 light below surface An underwater light illuminates powder on the surface of water to form a central spot of light.
6A44.50 ring of light Same as Oe-2.
6A44.50 light below surface An underwater light illuminates powder on the surface of water to form a central spot of light.
6A44.51 ring of light index of refraction Find the index of refraction of transparent plates by wetting a filter paper on one side, shining the laser in that side, and measuring the diameter of the light circle.
6A44.52 ring of darkness Shine a laser through a sample to a white diffusely reflecting surface and measure the darkened circle on the top surface.
6A44.53 water/benzol surface Total internal reflection from a water/benzol surface.
6A44.54 hidden mercury in a test tube Mercury in a partially filled test tube cannot be seen from above when immersed in water.
6A44.54 total internal and metallic reflect View a test tube half full of mercury half in water from an angle of 100 degrees to the incident beam. The glass-air interface is brighter.
6A44.55 black ball turns silver
6A44.55 black ball turns silver A soot covered ball appears silver under water due to reflected light from air trapped on the surface of the ball.
6A44.55 soot ball A ball covered with soot appears silvery in water due to the air trapped on the soot forming an air water interface.
6A44.55 silver soot ball A ball coated with soot appears silver in water.
6A44.56 glass-air interface Two thin strips of glass are sealed with an air barrier and immersed in water. Turned to the proper angle to the incident beam it will exhibit total internal reflection.
6A44.56 near critical angle Use the entrapped air slide in a water bath or air between right angle prisms to show the colors of the transmitted and reflected light near the critical angle. Dispersing the two beams will show complementary spectra.
6A44.59 add water to snow Project light through snow or chopped ice and add water.
6A44.60 diamond A thin beam of light is directed on a diamond and the reflections are projected onto a cardboard.
6A44.65 inversion with a right angle prism Project an image upside down and place a right angle prism in the beam to invert the image.
6A44.65 right angle prism inverter A right angle prism placed in a projected beam inverts the image.
6A44.66 right angle prism - double reflectio A beam entering the hypotenuse of a right angle prism is inverted and reversed.
6A44.67 two right angle prisms - inversion Two right angle prisms are arranged to invert and pervert the image.
6A44.68 prisms Several prisms demonstrate total internal reflection.
6A44.70 Goos-Haenchen shift The sideways displacement of a beam at total internal reflection is shown with 3 cm microwaves.

46. Rainbow

6A46.10 rainbow
6A46.10 rainbow An arc lamp directed at a sphere of water forms a rainbow on a screen.
6A46.10 rainbow Project a beam through a spherical flask of water and view the rainbow on a screen placed between the light and the flask.
6A46.11 artifical rainbow Form a vertical circle "rainbow" by placing a tube of water between a prism and screen.
6A46.12 secondary rainbow Use a single sphere with the back surface coated with a reflecting material to show both primary and secondary bows with increased intensity.
6A46.15 rainbow droplets Small droplets formed by spraying an atomizer on a soot covered glass plate glisten like colored jewels when viewed at 41 degrees.
6A46.16 rainbow dust On using small glass spheres to generate bows and halos.
6A46.20 rainbow model
6A46.20 rainbow model Depict a three dimensional model of the rainbow with strings representing light rays.
6A46.25 rainbow A mechanical model for demonstrating rainbow formation shows why the rainbow is produced and why size depends on the time of day.
6A46.26 rod and dowel raindrop model A rod and dowel raindrop model is used to show why a rainbow is bow-shaped.
6A46.30 optical disc with spherical lens
6A46.30 optical disc with spherical lens A single beam into a circular glass element is refracted, totally internally reflected, and refracted out again.
6A46.30 rainbow disc A single beam is used with a spherical glass element on an optical board to show the path of refracted light that produces a rainbow.

60. Thin Lens

6A60.10 blackboard optics - thin lens
6A60.10 blackboard optics - thin lens Blackboard optics are used with convex and concave thin lens elements.
6A60.11 optical disk with thin lens
6A60.11 optical disk with thin lens The optical disk is used with multiple beams and a thin lens element.
6A60.11 optical disc - lenses Various lens elements are used with the optical disc.
6A60.12 optical disc - refraction at curved A long plastic slab with a concave surface at one end and a convex surface at the other is used in the optical disc.
6A60.15 ripple tank convex lens
6A60.15 ripple tank convex lens
6A60.15 ripple tank - lens model Refraction due to depth differences over a lens shaped area in the ripple tank.
6A60.16 ripple tank concave lens
6A60.16 ripple tank concave lens
6A60.20 parallel lasers and lenses
6A60.20 parallel lasers and lenses Parallel lasers are passed through converging and diverging lenses. Chalk dust illuminates the beams.
6A60.20 parallel lasers and lenses Parallel lasers are used with chalk dust to show the path of rays through a lens and combinations of lenses.
6A60.20 ray tracing with lenses Show parallel rays passing through a lens element and converging.
6A60.30 thin lens projection Project the filament of a lamp with a thin lens.
6A60.30 projected filament with lens Project the filament of a light bulb on the wall. The lens can be stopped down.
6A60.30 thin lens projection Project the filament of a lamp with a thin lens.
6A60.30 real image formation With a source and screen at the ends of a long optical bench, show the two positions a lens will produce an image.
6A60.31 projected arrow with lens
6A60.31 projected arrow with lens Use an illuminated arrow with a converging lens to project an image on a screen.
6A60.32 thin concave lens Try to project an image with a thin concave lens.
6A60.33 image location A set of lenses for demonstration the six general cases for object and image distances.
6A60.35 lens magnification
6A60.35 lens magnification Place various lenses between a backlit grid and the class.
6A60.40 position of virtual image
6A60.40 position of virtual image with TV Find the virtual image location by focusing on an object through a lens removing the lens, and moving the object to a focused position. Also the apparent depth with TV method.
6A60.45 position of virtual image
6A60.45 focal length of a lens - mirror When a lamp is at the focal length, the image is at the same place if a mirror is placed directly behind the lens.
6A60.48 effect of medium on focal length Find the focal length of a lens, then find the focal length of the same lens in water.
6A60.49 lenses All sorts of focal length stuff.
6A60.50 pinholes projected with a lens
6A60.50 pinholes projected with a lens
6A60.50 pinholes projected with lens Pinholes are pricked in a black paper covering a long filament bulb. Bring the multiple images into one image with a converging lens.
6A60.50 action of a lens Project the images of a filament through several pinholes and then add a lens to collect the many into a single image.
6A60.60 paraffin lens and microwaves
6A60.60 paraffin lens and microwaves
6A60.60 microwave lens Construct a microwave lens and prisms of stacks of properly contoured aluminum sheets separated by just over one half the wavelength.

61. Pinhole

6A61.10 pinhole projection
6A61.10 pinhole projection Place a lamp in a box covered with heavy paper and poke a hole in the paper with a wire 1-2 mm in diameter. Poke more holes for more images. Try different size holes.
6A61.10 pinhole projection Interpose a metal plate with two holes between a lamp and a screen on an optical bench.
6A61.15 pinholes projected/lens see 6A60.50
6A61.20 pinhole camera
6A61.20 pinhole camera
6A61.20 pinhole camera Place film at the back of a box with a hole.
6A61.20 pinhole camera Project a lamp filament onto a screen. Vary the distance of the screen and the size of the pinhole. Includes animation.
6A61.21 pinhole camera A sliding box with has pinhole at one end and a frosted glass at the other. Try a 1" diameter hole in the shutter of a window in a darkened room. Directions on making a pinhole camera.
6A61.22 pinhole imagery A complete discussion of pinhole imagery.
6A61.23 pinhole camera A small tube covered with tin foil with a small hole replaces the lens of a TV camera.
6A61.30 fish-eye camera A pinhole camera filled with water or solid Lucite gives a fish-eye view. Diagram, Pictures.

65. Thick Lens

6A65.09 computer assisted optics The authors describe a program that covers spherical and chromatic aberration in addition to other topics. BASIC, PC, available from authors.
6A65.10 improving an image with a stop
6A65.10 improving an image with a stop Use a stop to improve the image through a short focal length lens.
6A65.11 depth of focus Use a six inch long glowing wire as an extended object for showing the effect of stopping down a lens.
6A65.15 optical disc - circular glass plate
6A65.15 optical disc - circular glass plate Use a circular plate of glass with the optical disc as an example of a thick lens.
6A65.20 chromatic aberration
6A65.20 chromatic aberration
6A65.20 chromatic aberration A diaphragm moved near the focus selects red or blue light from beams passing through the edge of a lens.
6A65.21 aplanic properties of a sphere Aplanic systems show no spherical aberration or coma for some special position of object and image demonstrated here with a spherical lens.
6A65.21 chromatic aberration Project spots of light on a screen from several points on a lens. Note chromatic aberration and then add a second correction lens.
6A65.22 chromatic aberration Show the image formation distance for red and uv light using a fluorescent screen to display the uv.
6A65.23 lens aberrations with a laser Good quality telescope and microscope objectives are used to show aberrations in optical systems.
6A65.24 chromatic and spherical aberration Use diaphragms with central, annular, and other openings to show spherical and chromatic aberration.
6A65.30 barrel and pincushion distortion
6A65.30 barrel and pincushion distortion
6A65.30 barrel and pincushion distortion Project an illuminated wire mesh with a large lens. Place a diaphragm between the lens and the mesh for barrel distortion and between the lens and the screen for pincushion distortion.
6A65.31 off axis distortion
6A65.31 off axis distortion Parallel rays of light pass through a lens element held off axis.
6A65.34 astigmatism Focus light from a circular hole on a screen, then add a cylindrical lens.
6A65.35 astigmatism and distortion
6A65.35 astigmatism and distortion An illuminated wire mesh is projected onto a screen with a short focal length condenser lens. Turn the lens about an axis parallel to either set of wires and the horizontal and vertical wires will focus at different points.
6A65.40 spherical aberration
6A65.40 spherical aberration Project an image with a spherical planoconvex lens. Stop the outer portion of the lens, then the center.
6A65.45 abberation with a plano convex lens A series of parallel beams around the outside edge of a plano convex lens made visible with chalk dust are better focused when the light enters the curved side.
6A65.46 spherical abberation and coma /laser Diagram and pictures of a setup to project lens aberrations with a laser.
6A65.52 fillable air lens
6A65.52 water lens A beam of light is directed through a round flask filled with water.
6A65.52 fillable air lenses Convex and concave lenses are filled with water and air in water and air.
6A65.53 spherical lens Compare a thermometer at the center of a water filled flask to one at the far side. Picture.
6A65.54 wine bottle lens Fill a round flask with a wine bottle bottom with water and fluorescein to show diverging light.
6A65.55 watch glass lens A vertical lens can be formed by pouring various liquids into a watch glass.
6A65.56 CHOICE OXIDE CHOICE OXIDE GLASS LAMP is viewed through a tube filled with water.
6A65.58 light beam strikes rod A light beam incident on the side of a glass rod at some angle will produce a cone with the half angle equal to the angle of incidence.
6A65.60 plastic lenses The advantages of plastic lenses.
6A65.70 Frensel lens
6A65.70 Fresnel lens history An article on the discovery of stepped lenses.
6A65.70 Fresnel lens Fresnel lens magnification. Animation showing construction of a Fresnel lens.

70. Optical Instruments

6A70.10 microscope model
6A70.10 microscope model
6A70.10 model microscope Make a demonstration microscope with a short focal length lens and reading glass.
6A70.12 microscope chart A diagram on a wall chart shows the action of a microscope.
6A70.13 fake microscope A mirror arrangement and fake microscope make normal objects seem miniaturized.
6A70.14 primative microscope A Leeuwenhoek 100 X magnifier is made with a glass bead on the end of a tapered tube.
6A70.20 telescope models
6A70.20 telescope models
6A70.20 telescope Set up astronomical, terrestrial, and Galilean telescopes for students to look through individually.
6A70.21 real telescope Observe with a Questar telescope.
6A70.22 sun telescope Make a heliostat for a room with a south facing window. Reference: AJP 38(3),391-2.
6A70.23 large telescopes Large telescopes are available on the roof for observations.
6A70.25 telephoto lens An illuminated wire mesh is projected on a screen using a telephoto lens setup.
6A70.30 camera model
6A70.31 cameras Several cameras are exhibited.
6A70.35 projector model
6A70.40 superposition of images A wire screen placed at the point where a real image is formed is projected through a second lens to form a combined image.
6A70.45 lens combinations A projection lantern double lens system.
6A70.50 measuring with moire fringes A long discussion on measuring with moire fringes. Diagrams, Construction details in appendix, p.1346.
6A70.60 changing beam size The beam size may be changed with or without inversion by placing the second lens at the sum or difference of the focal lengths.
6A70.65 entrance and exit pupil An optical bench setup shows the concept of entrance and exit pupil.


10. Luminosity

6B10.10 checker board
6B10.10 checker board Use a point source to superimpose shadows of a rectangle and a 3h x 3w checkerboard rectangle.
6B10.10 inverse square law A rectangular paddle and a 3Hx3W paddle are placed so shadows overlap and the distances are measured.
6B10.15 inverse square model A wire frame pyramid connects areas of 1, 4, and 16 units.
6B10.15 inverse square model A wire frame pyramid connects areas of 1, 4, and 16 units.
6B10.20 inverse square law with photometer
6B10.20 inverse square with photocell Double and triple the distance from an arc source to a photocell connected to a galvanometer.
6B10.20 foot-candle meter Use a Weston type foot-candle meter to measure the inverse square law.
6B10.20 inverse square law Double and triple the distance between a source and photometer. Graph.
6B10.30 paraffin block photometer
6B10.30 paraffin block photometer Two large paraffin blocks with tin foil sandwiched in between make a sensitive photometer. Use with lamps on either side.
6B10.30 paraffin blick photometer Two paraffin blocks separated by an aluminum sheet are moved between two light sources until they appear equally bright.
6B10.30 Joly diffusion photometer Tin foil is sandwiched between two blocks of paraffin. Can be mounted in a box for greater accuracy.
6B10.35 grease spot photometer
6B10.35 grease spot photometer A piece of paper with a grease spot is moved between two light sources until the spot disappears.
6B10.35 Bunsen grease-spot photometer A grease spot disappears when illuminated equally from both sides. Diagram of a grease-spot box.
6B10.40 Rumford shadow photometer
6B10.40 Rumford photometer Light sources are moved until their shadows of the same object are of equal intensity.
6B10.40 Rumford shadow photometer Two light sources are moved so the shadow cast by a vertical rod is of the same intensity.
6B10.50 frosted globe - surface brightness
6B10.50 frosted globe - surface brightness The surface brightness of a 40 W bulb is compared to a frosted globe placed over it.
6B10.50 surface brightness A lamp with measured candlepower is enclosed in a frosted globe.
6B10.55 frosted globes
6B10.55 frosted globes
6B10.60 surface brightness of a lens Place the eye at the image point of a lens focused on a dim lamp.
6B10.65 reflected surface brightness With a bright spot at the object point of a concave mirror and the eye at the image point, the whole mirror seems to have the same surface brightness as the spot.
6B10.70 laser and light bulb A .5 mW laser beam can be seen on the glass beside the bright center of a 25 W frosted incandescent bulb.
6B10.80 covered strobe and detector The amplitude of a signal displayed on an oscilloscope from a translucent covered photodetector and from a translucent covered strobe changes as the angles and distances are changed.

30. Radation Pressure

6B30.10 radiometer - quartz fiber
6B30.10 radiation pressure Construction details for a quartz fiber radiometer. Deflection of one radian is easily achieved with a microscope lamp.
6B30.10 radiometer The deflection of a quartz fiber radiometer is measured statically under high vacuum.
6B30.11 radiometer Focus a beam of light intermittently on a vane of the quartz fiber radiometer at the frequency of oscillation.
6B30.20 light pressure comment Brings attention to a paper that devotes six pages to describing errors in the "classical work by Nichols and Hull".

40. Blackbodies

6B40.10 variac and light bulb Vary the voltage to a 1 KW light bulb with a variac to show color change with temperature.
6B40.10 variac and light bulb Vary the voltage to a 1 KW light bulb with a variac to show color change with temperature.
6B40.10 variac and light bulb Vary the voltage across a clear glass lamp from zero to 50% overvoltage. Also measure the intensity and plot against power.
6B40.20 hole in a box
6B40.20 hole in a box Holes in black boxes are blacker than the boxes. One box is painted white inside.
6B40.20 hole in a black box A box painted black has a hole in the side.
6B40.20 Bichsel boxes Two black boxes have blacker appearing holes in them. One box actually is painted white inside.
6B40.25 carbon block
6B40.25 carbon block A carbon block with a hole bored in it is heated red hot with a torch. The hole glows brighter.
6B40.25 hole in a hot ball A iron ball with a hole is heated red hot.
6B40.26 carbon rod
6B40.26 carbon rod Bore a hole in an old carbon arc rod and heat electrically. The hole glows brighter.
6B40.30 radiation from a black body Heat red hot a carbon block the has both a drilled hole and a white porcelain plug.
6B40.30 carbon block and porcelain Two holes are drilled in a carbon block, one is filled with a porcelain insulator, and the block is heated with a torch.
6B40.30 graphite and porcelain Graphite and porcelain heated red hot look the same. A pattern on a porcelain dish shows brighter when heated.
6B40.35 good absorbers - good radiators An electric element (E-171) with chalk marks or china with a pattern are heated until they glow.
6B40.40 X-Y spectrum recorder
6B40.40 X-Y spectrum recorder The black body radiation curve is traced on a X-Y recorder from a thermopile. detector riding on the pen arm.
6B40.41 IR spectrum on galvanometer
6B40.41 plotting the spectrum Measure the output of a thermopile. as it is moved across a spectrum. Monochrometer in appendix, p. 1362, Plots.
6B40.41 radiation intensity curve Explore the energy distribution of the continuous spectrum of a carbon arc with a sensitive thermopile. and galvanometer.
6B40.41 infrared in spectrum Hold a thermopile. connected to a galvanometer in different parts of a spectrum.
6B40.42 mapping the spectrum Use a thermopile. and galvanometer to show the infrared energy in the continuous spectrum. Insert a water cell.
6B40.45 IR camera and projected spectrum
6B40.50 IR camera and soldering iron
6B40.55 project sprectrum and change temperature
6B40.55 radiation vs. temperature A more detailed look at varying the temperature of a black body and measuring with a thermopile.
6B40.55 radiation spectrum of a hot object Project the spectrum from a projector lamp and change the voltage.
6B40.62 Stefan-Boltzman equation Measuring sigma by the relative method using a Hefner lamp as a standard radiator.
6B40.70 microwave blackbody Microwave radiation emitted or absorbed by a cavity is detected and displayed on an oscilloscope.


10. Diffraction Through One Slit

6C10.10 single slit and laser Shine a laser beam through single slits of various sizes.
6C10.10 single slit and laser A laser beam is passed through slits of various widths are shown on the wall.
6C10.10 single slit and laser Direct laser beam through single slits of various sizes.
6C10.10 single slit diffraction Diffraction pattern from a laser passing through an adjustable slit spreads as the slit is closed
6C10.12 Cornell plate - single slit
6C10.12 Cornel plate - single slit
6C10.12 single slit diffraction (Cornell) Laser and Cornell slide - measurements from on screen can be used in calculations.
6C10.15 adjustable slit and laser Shine a laser beam through an adjustable slit.
6C10.15 adjustable slit and laser
6C10.15 laser and adjustable slit Project a laser beam through an adjustable slit.
6C10.15 diffraction limited resolution A beam of light is projected through an adjustable slit into a telescope attached to a TV camera. The central slit widens as the slit is closed.
6C10.20 two finger slit
6C10.20 two finger slit Have each student look at a vertical filament lamp through the slit formed by holding two fingers together.
6C10.21 adjustable single slit Look through a vernier caliper toward a monochromatic light 5 to 10 m away.
6C10.25 single slit diffraction - hand held Look at a filament through a dark plate with a line scratched in it.
6C10.26 single and double slits Single and double lines are ruled on a photographic plate. Students look at a line filament covered with half red and half blue filters. A ruling tool is described.
6C10.27 Cornell plate Pass out Cornell plates to the students and have them look at a line filament.
6C10.27 Cornell plate Pass out the Cornell plate.
6C10.30 slit on photodiode array
6C10.30 slit array A slit array of randomly spaced single or double slits follows the imaging lens projecting a slit on the wall.
6C10.30 single and double slit projected Focus a slit on the wall and place photographic plates with slits near the lens. For the single slit, parallel lines are unevenly spaced. For the parallel slit, pairs of lines of equal spacing are randomly spaced.
6C10.33 white light diffraction A slit is projected on the wall and a second slit is placed at the focal point of the lens.
6C10.43 rotating mirror detector A rotating mirror sweeps the interference pattern across a photodiode and the output is displayed on an oscilloscope.
6C10.43 electric razor detector sweep A mirror mounted on an electric razor is used to sweep a diffraction pattern across a sensitive photodiode, and the resulting pattern is displayed on an oscilloscope.
6C10.43 motorized slit sweep A slit is motorized and a microscope objective projects the observation plane onto a photodiode detector. The scope sweep is synchronized with the motor speed.
6C10.43 rotating mirror detector A rotating mirror sweeps a diffraction pattern across a photodiode and the pattern is shown on an oscilloscope.
6C10.44 single slit and relative phase A double slit is used to sample the light from a single slit to give information about the relative phases.
6C10.47 tv tube detector Look at the composite output from a TV camera on an oscilloscope at the same time the pattern is displayed on the screen.
6C10.50 microwave diffraction
6C10.50 microwave diffraction 3 cm microwave and a single slit.
6C10.50 microwave single slit diffraction Single slit diffraction with microwave apparatus.
6C10.50 microwave diffraction An adjustable slit on the Brett Carrol microwave board (receiver and transmitter are mounted on a large vertical circle with a built in LED bar graph signal strength indicator.
6C10.61 diffraction limited resolution Demonstrating the resolving power of a microscope is tricky.
6C10.62 diffraction limited resolution A "picket fence lantern slide with an adjustable slit on the screen side of the projection lens.
6C10.64 microscope resolving power Modify ordinary objectives by inserting diaphragms at the back focal plane. Use a binocular microscope with a normal ocular on one side.

20. Diffraction Around Objects

6C20.10 Arago's (Poisson's) spot Shine a laser beam at a small ball and look at the diffraction pattern.
6C20.10 laser and diffraction objects A laser beam is diffracted around balls.
6C20.10 Arago white spot A corridor demonstration of using a flashlight bulb, a ball bearing and a small telescope.
6C20.10 diffraction about a circular object A coin is placed between a pinhole and a screen. A small hole is punched in the screen in the shadow of the coin. While looking at the coin through the hole, a ring of light will be seen.
6C20.10 Arago's spot Arago's spot with a small lamp, telescope, and ball bearing over a 90' distance.
6C20.10 Poisson's bright spot A point source is used to illuminate a small ball.
6C20.12 photographing diffraction Simple setup of a camera with the lens removed, an object and a flashlight bulb.
6C20.13 large scale diffraction Use a penny and a long light path.
6C20.13 diffraction around a coin Project the shadow from a point source onto a translucent screen.
6C20.15 knife edge diffraction
6C20.15 diffraction around objects Diffraction of laser light around a razor edge, wires, small balls, etc. is viewed on a screen.
6C20.15 knife edge diffraction Slowly move a knife edge into a laser beam.
6C20.16 laser diffraction objects A list of recommended diffraction objects for use with laser beams. Pictures.
6C20.17 diffraction around large objects Expand a laser beam to 1-3" and look at the diffraction pattern of large objects. A folded optical path brings the viewing screen close to the object.
6C20.18 Fresnel diffraction Objects placed between a pinhole and a screen show striking diffraction patterns.
6C20.20 thin wire diffraction
6C20.20 thin wire diffraction
6C20.20 diffraciton pattern of a hair Put a hair in a laser beam.
6C20.20 fake double slit Put a straight pin in the laser beam.
6C20.20 diameter of a hair by diffraction Use Babinet's principle to measure the diameter of a hair by the fringes.
6C20.20 thin wire diffraction Place a .22 mm dia wire in a laser beam and measure the diameter by the diffraction pattern. Measurements can be taken from the video.
6C20.22 shadow of a needle
6C20.22 shadow of a needle A point source is placed behind a pair of needles.
6C20.30 pinhole diffraction
6C20.30 pinhole diffraction
6C20.30 Airy diffraction rings As a laser beam is stopped down to a region of constant intensity, the Airy diffraction rings will appear.
6C20.30 pin hole diffraction A laser passes through a pinhole in aluminum foil. Data can be taken from the video.
6C20.33 triangular aperature The Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a triangular aperture is predicted by an argument very similar to that used for a single slit.
6C20.40 zone plate lens
6C20.40 zone plate lens Use a photographic zone plate lens with an expanded laser beam.
6C20.42 zone plates on a laser printer A program to produce zone plates on a laser printer with discussion of limitations and applications.
6C20.45 microwave Fresnel zones A aluminum sheet with concentric rings that can be removed and replaced in various configurations is sized to work with a microwave transmitter.
6C20.45 microwave Fresnel diffraction Circular apertures are cut in aluminum sheets to simulate zone plates.
6C20.45 microwave Fresnel zones A 12 cm microwave Fresnel zone demonstration.
6C20.46 microwave zone plates The design of three varieties of microwave zone plates for 12 cm waves and lecture room use.
6C20.51 pass the razor blade Students hold a razor blade close to the eye so as to cut off part of an arc lamp.
6C20.52 diffraction peep show A 5 m long box holds a permanent diffraction setup.
6C20.58 parallel beam array An array of 25 small holes is projected to give parallel light beams which are used with slits and apertures to give patterns on the wall.
6C20.62 diffraction by a feather An image of a slit is blocked by a vertical rod. When a feather is placed between the lens and slit, light is scattered by diffraction onto the screen.
6C20.91 viewing diffraction on TV If the laser beam is expanded, diffraction patterns can be projected directly onto the bare videcon tube.


10. Interference From Two Sources

6D10.05 interference model
6D10.05 interference model
6D10.10 double slit and laser Shine a laser beam through double slits of different widths and spacing.
6D10.10 double slits and laser Pass a laser beam through double slits of different widths and spacing.
6D10.10 laser and double slit Direct a laser through a double slits of different dimensions.
6D10.10 double slit interference Pass a laser beam through double slits on the Cornell slide.
6D10.11 Cornell plate - two slit
6D10.11 Cornel plate - two slit
6D10.14 making double slits Photograph two dark wires against a white background with high contrast film and use the negative for a double slit.
6D10.15 double slit on X-Y recorder
6D10.15 double slit on X-Y recorder
6D10.15 double slit on x-y recorder Mount a photoresistor on the movable crossbar.
6D10.15 double slit on X-Y recorder Mount a detector on the the traveling arm of an X-Y recorder and trace out the intensity pattern of a double slit.
6D10.17 double slit on photo diode array
6D10.17 photodiode array Shine the diffraction pattern on a photodiode array and display the intensity plot on an oscilloscope.
6D10.17 photodiode array detector Project the pattern from the laser and adjustable slit onto a photodiode array and observe the intensity on an oscilloscope.
6D10.20 microwave two slit interference
6D10.20 microwave two slit interference
6D10.20 microwave two slit interference Microwave two slit interference.
6D10.20 microwave double slit diffraction The set up for double slit diffraction using 3.37 cm microwaves.
6D10.20 microwave double slit A 12 cm microwave double slit demonstration.
6D10.20 microwave double slit interference Two sets of slits with different spacing on the Brett Carrol microwave board.
6D10.25 microwave two source interference
6D10.25 microwave double source interference 12 cm microwave is set up with two transmitters.
6D10.30 two slit interference - hand held Look at a filament lamp through parallel lines scratched in a dark plate.
6D10.35 ripple tank incoherence
6D10.35 ripple tank incoherence The necessary conditions for interference are shown with a dripping water double source that can be adjusted to show irregular changes in initial phase differences.
6D10.36 coherence and interference An interference pattern results from a laser grazing the wall of a glass tube. The effect is not observable with non coherent light.
6D10.37 interference and coherence of light More variance on the subject.
6D10.37 coherence and interference in a tube This explanation of the interference pattern from the inner and outer edges of a glass tube differs from AJP 40(3),470.
6D10.38 cylindrical tube interference The ring pattern from shining a point source down a reflecting cylindrical tube results from interference of two virtual sources.
6D10.41 Fresnel biprism A laser through a Fresnel biprism gives two interference sources.
6D10.41 Fresnel biprism A Fresnel Biprism is placed between a slit and projecting lens giving a pattern similar to a double slit.
6D10.42 Billet half lens A split convex lens acts like a Fresnel biprism and gives an interference pattern.
6D10.46 double slit wavefront measurement As the laser beam is scanned across the double slit, the interference pattern moves antiparallel to the laser beam translation.
6D10.47 measuring interference fringes Use two filaments. Line up the central image of one filament with the first maximum of the other filament.
6D10.48 interference from "X" slits Crossed slits produce hyperbolic interference patterns.
6D10.51 computer generated interference A simple GW-BASIC program for generating two point interference patterns.
6D10.52 digital electronic diffraction A digital electronic circuit acts like 16 slits, any of which can be open or closed, with either or both of two wavelengths. Discusses the various effects that can be shown with the apparatus.
6D10.61 group and phase velocity by interfer The reflected laser light from the glass/air interfaces of two glass slides of different thicknesses show group and phase velocity when the air gap between them is changed.
6D10.90 3D interference patterns Direct the laser interference pattern from the back of the room off a mirror and toward the students into a smoke filled box.

15. Interference of Polarized Light

6D15.01 interference of polarized light On using unpolarized light.
6D15.10 interference of polarized light Polarized laser light is focused by a lens on a small calcite crystal and the interference pattern of the two resulting beams depends on the type and orientation of a second polarizer.
6D15.10 interference with polarized light A polarized laser beam passes through a calcite crystal and a polarizing sheet is interposed and rotated to make fringes appear and disappear.
6D15.14 interference question Mellon AJP 30(10),772 was wrong and here is why...
6D15.15 QM polarized light demos Eigenstates of the prism, etc.
6D15.20 polarized double-slit diffraction The diffraction patterns from parallel and perpendicular light through a double slit.
6D15.20 total interference Show the standard interference patterns with Polaroids in each path aligned parallel, then rotate one and the pattern disappears.
6D15.20 Fresnel-Arago law Use a laser to obtain widely separated fringes from a double slit. Cut ribbons of polarizer and hold with orthogonal polarization in the two exit beams and the fringes disappear..
6D15.21 interference of polarized light Pointer to articles in other publications.
6D15.22 interference in polarized light Demonstrating the Fresnel-Arago laws for interference in polarized light using a grating as a beam splitter and observing the interference fringes in its conjugate plane.
6D15.25 interference with polarized light Polarized light is passed through a double slit, the two output beams are polarized perpendicularly, and a third polarizer can be used as an analyzer.
6D15.26 elliptically polarized interference The double slit with orthogonal elliptical polarization.
6D15.30 interference of polarized light Put a quarter wave plate in one path of a Michelson interferometer and show the waves don't have to have the same polarization to interfere.

20. Gratings

6D20.10 number of slits Shine a laser beam through various numbers of slits with the same spacing.
6D20.10 Cornel plate - gratings
6D20.10 number of slits A laser is directed through various numbers of slits with the same spacing.
6D20.10 multiple slit interference Pass a laser beam through three sets of multiple slits on the Cornell slide.
6D20.11 project course grating A course grating is placed between an illuminated slit and the projection lens. A fine grating must be placed near the screen.
6D20.12 grating in air and water Measure the pattern of a laser beam incident on a diffraction grating placed inside an empty aquarium and with it full of water.
6D20.13 which side has the gratings? Wet one surface of the grating with alcohol and if it is the grating side, the intensity of the diffraction maxima decrease.
6D20.15 gratings and laser
6D20.15 gratings and laser
6D20.20 projected spectra with grating
6D20.20 projected spectra with grating White light, mercury, and sodium sources are passed through 300 and 600 lines per mm gratings.
6D20.20 interference gratings Shine a white light beam through gratings of 3000, 4000, and 6000 lines/cm.
6D20.25 student gratings and carousel see 7B10.10.
6D20.26 measure wavelength with a grating Look through a grating at a line source and measure the distance to the source and the angle of the lines.
6D20.28 beer can spectroscope Drink the beer, tape a replica grating over the hole, cut a slit in the bottom.
6D20.28 film canister spectroscope Make a slit in the cover of a film canister and place a grating over a hole in the bottom made with a #2 cork bore.
6D20.30 grazing incidence diffraction Grazing incidence on a very course grating produces minute path differences.
6D20.31 measuring wavelength with a ruler A laser is diffracted at grazing incidence off the rulings of a steel scale.
6D20.31 measuring wavelength with a ruler Diffraction of a laser beam by grazing incidence on a machinists rule.
6D20.32 compact disk grating Information on the pit and grove sizes and an example setup.
6D20.35 wire diffraction gratings Reconstruction of Fraunhofer's original gratings made of #42 wire at 80/inch.
6D20.40 dispersion and resolving power A discussion of the distinction between dispersion and resolving power of a grating.
6D20.42 gratings and minimum deviation On the advantages of using diffraction gratings at the angle of minimum deviation instead of the position of perpendicular incidence.
6D20.45 first order gratings Gratings that produce only one order either side of the central maximum are made by photographing Fraunhofer diffraction fringes.
6D20.46 Babinet's principle - 2D Carefully drawn black spots on white paper are photographically reduced and the positive and negative copies are used as complementary arrays.
6D20.47 Babinet's principle A technique for constructing complementary gratings for demonstrating Babinet's principle.
6D20.50 crossed gratings and laser
6D20.50 crossed gratings and laser Same as Ol-13.
6D20.50 crossed gratings Two gratings are crossed and placed in a laser beam.
6D20.52 crossed gratings in smoke box A laser and crossed gratings in a smoke box. Discusses patterns from skew beams.
6D20.53 diffraction grating and laser Show the beams coming out of the grating at angles by grazing the blackboard or using a cylindrical lens.
6D20.55 two dimensional gratings and laser
6D20.55 two dimensional grating View an automobile headlamp through a small square of silk.
6D20.56 regular and irregular patterns
6D20.56 regular and irregular patterns
6D20.56 regular and irregular patterns Use a computer to generate regular and irregular arrays of the same aperture and photo reduce them to make diffraction plates.
6D20.56 hole gratings A source for hole gratings of several spacings, sizes, and arrangements.
6D20.57 optical crystal set Seven sequences of four 2x2 slides used to in the simple Laue approach to diffraction by crystals. Winner of the 1973 AAPT apparatus competition.
6D20.58 optical simulation of electron diffr Generate and reduce dot patterns that generate patterns with laser light that are similar to various electron diffraction patterns.
6D20.59 random multiple gratings
6D20.61 water droplets Exhale on clean glass.
6D20.62 red blood cells Look through a drop of blood on a microscope slide at a point source or project onto a screen from a point source.
6D20.63 dust on the mirror Dust a bathroom mirror and hold a small light as close to the eye as possible.
6D20.63 lycopodium powder diffraction A collimated beam of white light is passed through a glass dusted with lycopodium powder giving a maximum at 50 cm with a 60' throw.
6D20.64 scatter light interference How to make a scatter plate with a speckle diameter of 3 microns.
6D20.70 ultrasonic wave diffraction Light is diffracted by ultrasonic waves in a liquid.
6D20.75 speckle spots and random diffraction The sparkling of a spot illuminated by a laser beam on the wall is caused by random interference patterns caused by scattered light.
6D20.76 speckle patterns in arc light Speckle patterns can also be seen in arc lamp light. The patterns disappear as the object is brought closer to the arc.
6D20.76 speckle patterns in unfiltered sun Speckle patterns from sunlight scattered by a diffusing surface are common. Train yourself to see them.
6D20.80 reconstruction of diffraction patter Reconstruct the image of a light source by viewing its diffraction pattern through a similar grating placed in front of the camera lens.
6D20.85 Fabry-Perot "multiple slit" An adjustable "multiple slit" interference pattern can be shown with a Fabry-Perot interferometer.

30. Thin Films

6D30.10 Newton's rings Reflect white light off Newton's rings onto the wall.
6D30.10 Newton's rings Newton's rings are projected on the wall.
6D30.10 Newton's rings Reflect light off a long focal length lens squeezed against a flat glass.
6D30.10 Newton's rings A long focal length lens is held against a flat. Note change of ring size with different colored light.
6D30.10 Newton's rings Newton's rings with monochromatic light.
6D30.10 Newton's rings Reflect white light off Newton's rings apparatus to a screen.
6D30.11 Newton's rings - HeNe Not the standard. The laser light reflected from the curved and flat surfaces of a plano-convex lens is superimposed on a screen.
6D30.12 Netwon's rings - float glass Some diagrams and pictures of arrangements using float glass (very flat) to demonstrate Newton's rings.
6D30.20 soap film interference Reflect white light off a soap film onto a screen.
6D30.20 soap film interference Project white light reflected off a soap film in a wire frame onto the wall.
6D30.20 soap film interference Reflect white light off a soap film onto a screen.
6D30.20 soap film interference Illuminate a soap film with an extended source in a darkened room.
6D30.20 soap film interference Project light reflecting off a soap film onto a screen.
6D30.20 soap film interference Reflect white light off a soap film on a wire frame.
6D30.21 stable black soap films Vidal Sasson - Extra Gentle Formula makes black films lasting five minutes or longer.
6D30.22 soap film transmission and reflectio A configuration that allows simultaneous viewing of transmitted and reflected patterns shows the colors of corresponding bands are complementary.
6D30.23 constant soap film Fit a large graduate with a rectangular frame with the handle protruding through the stopper. Fill half full with soap solution.
6D30.25 Boys rainbow cup Rotate a hemispherical shell with a soap film across the front so the black spot forms in the middle.
6D30.30 air wedge
6D30.30 air wedge
6D30.30 air wedge A sodium lamp illuminates an air wedge between two plates of glass.
6D30.30 air wedge with sodium light Diffuse sodium light with frosted glass before reflecting it off two plane glass plates.
6D30.30 air wedge Reflect an extended monochromatic source off two large pieces of plate glass held together.
6D30.30 glass plates in sodium light The diffused light from a high intensity sodium lamp is viewed by reflection off one and two pieces of plate glass.
6D30.40 Pohl's mica sheet
6D30.40 Pohl's mica sheet
6D30.40 mica interference Show interference by reflection of filtered mercury light from a mica sheet onto a screen.
6D30.40 mica sheet Reflect light from a mercury point source off a thin sheet of mica onto the opposite wall. Derivation.
6D30.40 Pohl's mica thin film Mercury light is reflected off a thin mica sheet. Mercury light source reference: AJP 19(4),248.
6D30.40 Pohl's mica sheet Mercury light reflects off a sheet of mica onto a screen.
6D30.45 turpentine film White light incident of the surface of turpentine on water at an angle of 45-60 degrees is focused on a screen.
6D30.48 absorption phase shift Cover the back of a microscope slide with streaks of an absorbing dye and observed under monochromatic light.
6D30.50 temper colors A thin film of oxide forms on a polished steel sheet when it is heated.
6D30.60 interference filters
6D30.60 interference filter A interference filter for the mercury green line is used with white, mercury, and neon light at different angles of incidence.
6D30.60 interference filters White light is seen in reflection and transmission on a thread screen using three different interference filters.
6D30.61 interference films A broad source (36 sq in) He lamp is used to examine thin metal films.
6D30.65 oil film The thickness of a film of oil on a pan of water that can be varied by sliding an iron bar across the surface makes an excellent variable interference filter.
6D30.70 microwave thin film interference Sow interference by transmission and reflection with two ground glass sheets, one stationary and the other movable on an optical bench.

40. Interferometers

6D40.10 Michelson interferometer Use a Michelson interferometer with either laser or white light.
6D40.10 Michelson interferometer Pass laser light through a commercial interferometer onto the wall. Can also be done with white light.
6D40.10 Michelson interferometer modified The Cenco M3 interferometer is modified to obtain good results without the clock drive (AJP 27,520 (1959)).
6D40.10 Michelson interferometer Use a Michelson interferometer with either laser or white light.
6D40.10 Michelson interferometer The Michelson interferometer.
6D40.10 Michelson interferometer Project colored fringes from white light onto a screen, insert a hot object in one path.
6D40.10 Michelson interferometer -white ligh A commercial interferometer with white light. Both circular and line fringes are shown.
6D40.11 interferometer - large class Use a laser with the Michelson interferometer and expand the exit beam with a microscope objective.
6D40.12 Michelson interferometer - power Measure the power of solar cells in the two outputs of the Michelson interferometer.
6D40.13 Michelson interferometer alignment Hints on alignment techniques.
6D40.15 interference fringes with audio
6D40.15 interference fringes with audio A photocell detector detects fringes and the output is converted to an audio signal.
6D40.16 Michelson - advanced topics Use the Michelson interferometer to demonstrate graphically the Fourier transform nature of Fraunhoffer diffraction and introduce basic concepts of coherent optics.
6D40.20 microwave interferometer
6D40.20 microwave interferometer Thorough discussion of the microwave interferometer including using it to calibrate a meter stick.
6D40.21 microwave interferometer Three microwave interferometers: Lloyd's mirror, Michelson's interferometer, grid-detection interferometer, are shown. Pictures.
6D40.22 microwave interferometer Use 4 cm microwaves and 10" square platforms of plexiglass to demonstrate Lloyd's mirror, Michelson's interferometer, and grid-detection interferometers on the overhead.
6D40.25 microwave interferometer Demonstrate an interferometer using chicken wire mirrors and a 12 cm microwave.
6D40.25 microwave Michelson interferometer Make a microwave Michelson interferometer with window screen reflectors and a chicken wire half reflector.
6D40.30 Jamin interferometer The two mirrors are adjustable about mutually perpendicular axes.
6D40.30 Jamin interferometer Use second surface mirrors at and angle generate parallel beams in this interferometer.
6D40.35 Sagnac interferometer - real fringes Real fringes are observed with the Sagnac interferometer with both a point source and an extended source. Virtual fringes require an extended source. Also applies to Michelson interferometer.
6D40.35 Fabry-Perot interferometer Construction details for a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Applications: optical measurements, index of refraction of a gas, and the Zeeman effect.
6D40.40 triangular interferometer The triangular interferometer is explained. Diagrams, Construction details in appendix, p. 1353.
6D40.42 coupled cavity interferometer A prism mounted on a phonograph turntable is used to rapidly vary the path length of the external cavity.
6D40.45 coherence length Use a long path interferometer to demonstrate the coherence length is at least 12 m. Also transverse coherence.
6D40.45 long path interferometer The movable mirror can be at least 6 m away giving a coherence length of 12 m.
6D40.46 long path interferometer A long path interferometer uses corner reflectors instead of mirrors and the output beam is directed onto a photodetector feeding an audio oscillator.
6D40.47 double ended interferometer Demonstrates the coherence of beams emitted from opposite ends of the laser tube.
6D40.48 transverse coherence Misaligning the mirrors still gives fringes.
6D40.49 thick reflecting plate Interference from waves reflected off two sides of a plate, limited to thin films in ordinary light, works in thick glass with lasers.
6D40.50 Fresnel interferometers Two different setups of Fresnel interferometers are discussed.
6D40.54 Mylar Fabry- Perot interferometer Design of an interferometer using metalized mylar as mirrors.
6D40.54 inexpensive Fabry-Perot Use standard "one-way" mirrors.
6D40.54 low cost Fabry-Perot interferometer Construction of Fabry-Perot devices from microscope cover glasses and plate glass.
6D40.54 medium cost Fabry-Perot Use Pyrex optical flats.
6D40.54 low cost Fabry-Perot Use surplus optically flat circular plates.
6D40.54 low cost comment Spacings up to 1/4" are possible.
6D40.55 Fabry-Perot etalon Directions for construction an inexpensive Fabry-Perot etalon. Reference: AJP 36(1),ix.
6D40.56 Fabry-Perot interferometer Add some mirrors to a commercially made linear positioning stage.
6D40.57 simple gauge-length interferometer A simple low-cost interferometer using only manufacturers' stock components.
6D40.60 listening to doppler shift of light Light from a laser beam is reflected off fixed and movable mirrors is mixed on a photodetector and the resulting signal is amplified and drives a speaker.
6D40.60 satellite tracking using doppler Beats between a generator and Sputnik I are recorded and played back while projecting a spot on a map indicating position.
6D40.60 spherical mirror interferometer An interferometer with two spherical mirrors is designed to show wind around objects, heat effects, and strain effects.
6D40.61 optical doppler shift Show the frequency shift of a laser beam bouncing off a moving mirror with a spectrum analyzer.
6D40.61 doppler effect with light Using a laser beam, retroreflector on a moving air track, beam splitter, and stationary mirror, observe the signal of the beat pattern from a silicon photodiode on an oscilloscope.
6D40.62 doppler radar Diagram of apparatus for Doppler radar. The reflector is mounted on a 1/32 scale slot car.
6D40.62 doppler shift with microwaves Some of the transmitted signal and the signal received after reflection off a moving object are fed to a mixer.
6D40.70 complicated doppler shift setups Sophisticated Doppler shift experiments with construction details, diagrams, and 7 references.


10. Synthesis and Analysis of Color

6F10.10 color box
6F10.10 color box A commercial Singerman box projects blue, red, and green light onto a screen with individually variable intensity.
6F10.10 color box Overlap red, green, and blue light of adjustable intensity on a translucent screen.
6F10.10 color box The Welch color box shows the addition of the primary colors.
6F10.10 additive color mixing Mix red, green, and blue in a color box.
6F10.11 color addition Red, green, and blue lamps shine from the corners of a white triangle. A rod or rods are placed on the screen to show the colors of shadows.
6F10.12 cenco color apparatus The primary colors can be projected onto a screen.
6F10.13 color synthesizer A color synthesizer allows demonstration of the significance of dominate wavelength, purity, luminosity, etc.
6F10.15 color addition Wratten filters Nos. 19, 47, and 61 are used to make a slide with 1/3 of a circle of each color. A projection arrangement shows the combination of colors and division of light between the separate colors.
6F10.16 color projector Adapting a lantern slide projector for mixing primary colors.
6F10.17 projecting colors Many color demonstrations are performed with a slide projector and slides reflected off swivel mirrors.
6F10.18 lantern slide colors A diffraction grating is held in front of a lantern projector with seven slits, one side with primary additive colors, the other with subtractive, and the center white.
6F10.20 color filters
6F10.20 color filters Cyan, magenta, and yellow filters are available as loose squares or fixed in a plexiglass holder for use on the overhead projector.
6F10.22 dichromatic primary pairs Discussion of the standard light addition, subtraction, as they relate to two color mixing.
6F10.23 artist's colors On why artists use red, yellow, and blue instead of red, green, and blue.
6F10.23 artist's colors - letter Hey guys, artists use pigments, not light, and anyway the subtractive primary colors are cyan, magenta, and yellow. Information of 4-color printing and real artist's pigments too.
6F10.25 spinning color disc
6F10.25 synthesis of colors A disc with colored sectors appears white when rotated.
6F10.25 spinning color discs Disks with colored sectors are spun until the colors blend together.
6F10.25 Newton's color disc A spinning disc of colored sectors appears white.
6F10.26 weird slit with Hg light A slit and "inverted slit" used with Hg and a prism produce the normal line spectra and "inverted spectrum" of complementary colors.
6F10.30 recombining the spectrum
6F10.30 recombining the spectrum Recombine the spectrum after passing through a prism to get white light or remove a color and get the complement.
6F10.30 recombining colors Recombining dispersed light after reflecting out various colors, etc.
6F10.30 recombining the spectrum Obtain a spectrum with a prism, reflect out a color with a small thin mirror, and recombine the light with a lens.
6F10.33 purity of the spectrum
6F10.33 purity of the spectrum A second prism at right angles bends each color without dispersion.
6F10.35 splitting and recombining A half spectrum filter splits out light from a beam which is then recombined at a spot.
6F10.36 dispersion and recombination Several variations of recombining dispersed light from a prism.
6F10.45 complementary shadow
6F10.45 red and green
6F10.45 complementary shadow Shadows of red and white lights illuminating the same object from different angles appear to produce green light.
6F10.50 filtered spectrum
6F10.50 filtered spectrum Part of a beam of white light is projected through a prism. When a filter is inserted in the beam, the spectrum and transmitted light are compared.
6F10.51 liquid cell absorption An absorbing solution is placed in a liquid cell placed in a beam of light before dispersion.
6F10.52 plotting absorption A motor drive is connected to a grating and the output of a lead sulfide detector is plotted on a strip chart recorder as the spectrum is scanned with various filters and intensities. Reference: AJP 35(6),542-3.
6F10.52 spectra and liquid absorption Absorption cells filled with liquids are used with a 35 mm projector and the B & L spectra projection kit.
6F10.52 filtergraph A slide with four filters and the corresponding spectrographic diagrams.
6F10.54 photocell measurement of absorption Use suitable sources, cells, and filters to measure absorption of substances with a photocell.
6F10.55 band absorption spectra
6F10.55 band absorption spectrum A flask of nitrous oxide is placed in the beam of white light before dispersion by a prism spectroscope. Didymium glass and dilute blood are also suggested.
6F10.56 absorption spectrum of chlorophyll Show the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll obtained by macerating leaves in methyl alcohol. Red and Green transmit.
6F10.57 water absorption bands A monochrometer (38-5.11) is used to demonstrate water absorption bands.
6F10.61 metal films and dyes A thin film of gold transmits green but looks reddish-yellow by reflection. Dyes also transmit and reflect different colors.
6F10.65 dichromatism Green cellophane transmits more red light than green. Stack lots of sheets and the color of transmitted light changes from green to red.
6F10.70 three conditions for color The three conditions are: Color must be in the source, the object must reflect or transmit the color, the detector must be sensitive to the color. Shine different colored light at different colored objects.
6F10.71 color due to absorption Light from a projection lantern reflected off red, green, and blue glass to the ceiling is the same but the transmitted light is colored by absorption.
6F10.75 colors in spectral light
6F10.75 colored yarn Skeins of colored yarn are illuminated with different colored light.
6F10.75 colors in spectral light A rose is viewed in white, red, green, and blue light.
6F10.80 complementary color transitions Lecture room experiments are proposed which demonstrate complementary color transitions due to complementary boundary conditions at the aperture.

30. Dispersion

6F30.10 dispersion curve of a prism
6F30.10 dispersion curve of a prism Light passes through a grating and then through a second slit at right angles and a prism generating a dispersion curve in color on the screen.
6F30.15 deviation with no dispersion Light passed through oppositely pointed crown and flint glass prisms adjusted to give light deviated in two directions but with no dispersion.
6F30.20 dispersion with no deviation Light passes through prisms of crown and flint glass adjusted to give two beams of the same dispersion but different deviation.
6F30.30 anomalous dispersion of fuchsin Overcoming the difficulties of showing anomalous dispersion with fuchsin.
6F30.30 anomalous dispersion of sodium An absorption cell for the anomalous dispersion of sodium is described. Diagrams, Construction details in appendix, p.1354.
6F30.31 bending dark absorption line of Na When salt is heated on a flame in the path of a narrow beam of light before dispersion, the edges of the spectrum close to the dark band bend up or down.
6F30.50 optical ceramics: dispersion A custom fabricated prism made from LaSFN-9 glass shows a cutoff between transmission and total internal reflection that can be tuned through the visible spectrum by turning the prism.

40. Scattering

6F40.10 sunset Pass abeam of white light through a tank of water with scattering centers from a solution of oil in alcohol.
6F40.10 sunset A beam of white light is passed through a tank of water and a solution of cedarwood oil in alcohol is poured in to create scattering centers.
6F40.10 artifical sunset Pass a beam through a hypo solution and add acid.
6F40.11 sunset Light scattering with a hypo solution.
6F40.11 sunset HCl into hypo solution scatters blue light.
6F40.11 sunset A beam of light is scattered when passed through water containing hypo and HCl.
6F40.12 various scattering centers, Mei Alternatives to hypo for the sunset demo including latex spheres that demonstrate Mie scattering.
6F40.15 red and blue beam A red beam is passed through a solution of gum mastic but a blue beam is not. Diagram.
6F40.20 optical ceramics scattering
6F40.20 optical ceramics: Rayleigh scatterin Type 7070 glass is treated to induce glass-in-glass phase separation used to show Rayleigh scattering.
6F40.30 color of smoke Cigarette smoke is blue, but after exhaling is white.
6F40.50 microwave scattering
6F40.50 microwave scattering Show scattering of microwaves with a dielectric dipole inserted in the beam. Picture.
6F40.60 multiple scattering Examples of common observations inexplicable by single scattering, e.g., darkening of wet sand, whiteness of milk, etc., are discussed without invoking the complete incoherent scattering theory.
6F40.80 halos Look at a point source lamp through a fogged microscope slide.
6F40.80 dust halos A glass plate covered with dust is held in a beam that converges into a hole in a screen. Circular halos appear on the screen around the hole.
6F40.82 lunar halo picture Picture and analysis of an unusual lunar halo.


10. Dichroic Polarization

6H10.05 generating polarized light Lists all methods of generating polarized light.
6H10.06 many light demonstrations Strain patterns, polarization by reflection, pile of plates, scattering, rotary dispersion, the Faraday effect, interference in polarized white light, double refraction, polarizing microscope, double refraction in sticky tape.
6H10.10 polaroids on the overhead Show polarization with two sheets of polaroid and a pair of sunglasses on an overhead projector.
6H10.10 polaroids on the overhead Two sheets of Polaroid and a pair of sunglasses are provided with an overhead projector.
6H10.10 polariods on overhead Commercially available polarizing plates are now available. (1930's)
6H10.10 polaroid sheets crossed and uncrosse Two Polaroid sheets are partially overlapped while aligned and at 90 degrees.
6H10.11 polaroids A beam from an arc lamp is directed through two Polaroid sheets.
6H10.15 polarization kit Polaroid sheets for the overhead plus a lot of other stuff.
6H10.20 microwave polarization Hold a grid of parallel wires in a microwave beam and rotate the grid.
6H10.20 microwave polarization A "hamburger grill" filter is used to demonstrate polarization from a 12 cm dipole.
6H10.20 microwave polarization A grid of parallel wires is held in a microwave beam.
6H10.20 microwave polarization Microwave polarization is shown by rotating the receiver or using a grating.
6H10.20 microwave polarization A slotted disc is rotated in the microwave beam.
6H10.30 polarization - mechanical model
6H10.30 polarization - mechanical model Two boxes, one a polarizer and the other an analyzer, are built with a center slot that can be oriented either horizontally or vertically. Use with waves on a rubber hose.
6H10.31 polarization - mechanical model A pendulum is hung from a long strut restrained by slack cords. Circular motion of the pendulum will be damped into a line by the motion of the strut.
6H10.40 polaroids cut at 45 degrees
6H10.40 polaroids cut at 45 degrees Cut squares of Polaroid so the axes are at 45 degrees. Now turning one upside down causes cancellation.

20. Polarization by Reflection

6H20.05 making black glass Eliminate the reflection off the second surface of a glass plate with a Canada balsam and lampblack suspension on the back side.
6H20.10 Brewster's angle Rotate a polariod filter in a beam that reflects at Brewster's angle off a glass onto a screen.
6H20.10 Brewster's angle A beam of white light is reflected off a sheet of black glass at Brewster's angle onto the wall. A Polaroid is provided to test.
6H20.10 polarization by reflection Rotate a Polaroid filter in a beam that reflects off a glass onto a screen.
6H20.11 tilt the windowpane Reflect plane polarized light off a window pane and vary the angle of incidence through Brewster's angle.
6H20.12 Brewster's angle with laser Using horizontally polarized laser light, rotate a glass plate through Brewster's angle to observe a null.
6H20.12 polarization of the laser beam Rotate a Polaroid in the beam of a laser with Brewster's angle mirrors.
6H20.15 microwave Brewster's angle
6H20.15 microwave Brewster's angle A block of paraffin is tilted until there is a minimum of transmitted radiation.
6H20.20 polarization by double reflection
6H20.20 polarization by double reflection
6H20.20 polarization from two plates Two black glass mirrors - one fixed and the other rotates.
6H20.20 polarization of double reflection Reflect light off a black mirror onto a second rotating black mirror to produce extinction.
6H20.20 double mirror Brewster's angle Two glass plates are mounted in a box at Brewster's angle with the second able to rotate around the axis of the incident light.
6H20.20 double reflection polarization Direct unpolarized light at a glass plate at 57 degrees, then to another plate at the same angle of incidence and perpendicular to the polarized light.
6H20.20 polarization by double reflection Offset a beam of light by double reflection off glass, then rotate the first glass 90 degrees to obtain extinction. Replace the glass with metal mirrors and no polarization takes place.
6H20.21 Norrenberg's polariscope Light strikes two black glass plates in succession, each at 57 degrees. Rotate the second glass plate and replace it with a mirror.
6H20.25 large scale polarizer A large box with two black glass plates gives an extended source of plane polarized light.
6H20.30 Brewster's cone
6H20.30 Brewster's cone A black glass cone at Brewster's angle.
6H20.31 pyramid method Illuminate a rotatable pyramid made of four triangles of black glass mounted at 57 degrees with the base with plane polarized light.
6H20.40 stack of plates
6H20.40 stack of plates A stack of glass plated at 57 degrees will transmit and reflect light that is cross polarized.

30. Circular Polarization

6H30.01 circular polarization model One vector moves along with a fixed orientation in space while five others, at quarter wavelengths, rotate.
6H30.10 three Polaroids
6H30.10 three polaroids Three sheets of Polaroid are provided with an overhead projector.
6H30.10 rotation by polarizing filter Stick a third sheet between crossed Polaroids
6H30.30 barber pole
6H30.30 barber pole A beam of polarized light is rotated when directed up a vertical tube filled with sugar solution.
6H30.30 barber pole Show a beam of polarized light up through a tube with a sugar solution and scattering centers. The beam rotates and colors are separated.
6H30.30 barbershop sugar tube Illuminate a tube of corn syrup from the bottom. Insert and rotate a Polaroid filter between the light and tube.
6H30.35 laser and quinine sulfate Pass a polarized laser beam through a cylinder filled with a quinine sulfate solution.
6H30.40 Karo syrup Insert a tube of liquid sugar between crossed polaroids.
6H30.40 karo syrup tank Fill an aquarium with karo syrup and insert glass objects - prism, block, balls. View the collection through motorized crossed Polaroids
6H30.40 karo syrup Place a bottle of Karo syrup between crossed Polaroids
6H30.40 rotation by sugar solution Insert a tube of sugar solution between crossed Polaroids
6H30.40 optical activity in corn syrup A bottle of corn syrup between Polaroids, three overlapping containers of equal thickness between Polaroids
6H30.41 Karo syrup prism Colors change as one Polaroid is rotated in a Karo syrup prism between crossed Polaroids
6H30.42 three tanks Compare the rotation of plane polarized light in tanks containing sugar solution, turpentine, and water.
6H30.45 quartz "biplate" A quartz "biplate" is set between two crossed Polaroids at 45 degrees, then a tube of sugar solution is also inserted and rotated.
6H30.60 ? ?
6H30.70 microwave optical rotation
6H30.70 microwave optical activity A styrofoam box contains 1200 coils of wire aligned in an array and wound in the same sense will rotate microwave radiation.
6H30.71 microwave optical rotation A microwave analog of optical rotation in cholesteric liquid crystals. Plastic sheets with small parallel wires are stacked so the wires on successive layers vary in a screw type fashion.
6H30.80 Faraday rotation
6H30.80 Faraday rotation Polarized light is passed through holes in an electromagnet bored parallel with the magnetic field. a specimen is placed in the magnet and the rotation is determined when the magnet is energized.
6H30.81 Faraday rotation Insert a partially filled glass container of Halowax or carbon tetrachloride into the core of a solenoid between crossed Polaroids
6H30.82 rotation by magnetic field A CS2 cell placed in a solenoid rotates the plane of polarization on light.

35. Birefringence

6H35.10 two calcite crystals Use a second calcite crystal to show the polarization of the ordinary and extraordinary rays.
6H35.10 two calcite crystals Use a second calcite crystal to show the polarization of the ordinary and extraordinary rays.
6H35.15 calcite and Polaroid on OH
6H35.15 birefringent crystal Rotate a calcite crystal on an overhead projector covered except for a small hole. Use a Polaroid sheet to check polarity.
6H35.15 ordinary and extraordinary ray Rotate a calcite crystal with one beam entering and two will emerge, one on axis and the other rotating around.
6H35.15 birefringent crystal Project a hole in a strongly illuminated cardboard onto a screen through a calcite crystal. Interpose and rotate a polarizing plate to make the two images disappear alternately, or use a Wollaston prism.
6H35.15 double refraction in calcite Place a calcite crystal over printed material or a metal plate with a small hole.
6H35.17 plexiglass birefringence
6H35.17 plexiglas birefringence Same as AJP ,(12),1086
6H35.17 plexiglas birefringence Show birefringence of a Plexiglas rod directly with a linearly polarized laser. Also easily construct half and quarter wave plates.
6H35.20 birefringence crystal model A flexible crystal model is used to show how index of refraction can vary in a crystal.
6H35.21 pendulum model Strike a pendulum with a blow, then wait 1/4, 1/2, or 3/4 period and strike another equal blow at right angles to the first.
6H35.21 model of double refraction A double pendulum displaced in an oblique direction will move in a curved orbit.
6H35.22 wood stick polarization wave models Stick models of plane and circular polarized light.
6H35.23 retardation plate models Fifteen models of retardation plates. Reference: AJP 21(9),466-7.
6H35.24 wavefront models Wire models show spherical and elliptical wavefronts in crystals.
6H35.25 birefringent crystal axes Examine calcite crystals cut perpendicular, parallel, and along the cleavage axis under a microscope.
6H35.30 Nichol prism One of a pair of Nichol prisms is rotated as a beam of light from an arc lamp is projected through.
6H35.31 Nichol prism model Construct a wire frame model to show how calcite crystals are cut to form a Nichol prism.
6H35.32 polarizing crystals Explain the action of tourmaline crystals and the Nicol prism with models.
6H35.40 quarter wave plate
6H35.40 quarter-wave plate Insert a quarter-wave plate between Nichol prisms at 45 degrees giving circular polarization.
6H35.40 quarter wave plate Place a quarter wave disc between a Polaroid and a mirror.
6H35.41 mechanical model half wave plate An anisotropic spring and metal ball system is the mechanical analog of a half-wave plate.
6H35.44 half and quarter wave plates Use half and quarter wave plates with polarized sodium light.
6H35.45 half wave plate
6H35.45 half-wave plate Insert a half wave plate between Nichol prisms at 45 degrees giving plane polarized light.
6H35.45 half wave plate Use a quartz wedge to show the effect of a half wave plate.
6H35.50 stress plastic A set of plastic shapes are bent between crossed polariods.
6H35.50 stress plastic A set of plastic shapes are bent between crossed Polaroids.
6H35.50 stress plastic A commercial squeeze device and little plastic shapes are used between crossed Polaroids.
6H35.50 stress plastic Plastic shapes on the overhead between crossed Polaroids
6H35.50 stress plastic Various shapes of plastic fit in a squeezer between crossed Polaroids in a lantern projector.
6H35.50 stress plastic Plastic is stressed between crossed Polaroids ALSO - Stroke a strip of glass longitudinally between crossed Polaroids and standing waves are apparent.
6H35.50 photoelastic stress figures Stress a plastic bar between crossed Polaroids
6H35.51 crystal structure of ice A thin slab of ice is placed between crossed Polaroids
6H35.51 quartz wedge Interference colors are shown with a quartz wedge in red, green and white light polarized light.
6H35.52 color with mica Rotate a mica sheet between crossed Polaroids
6H35.52 quartz wedge A setup to show the spectral analysis of the colors of a quartz wedge.
6H35.53 butterfly. etc.
6H35.53 butterfly. etc.
6H35.53 sign on crystals A setup using a quartz wedge or sensitive plate to determine the sign of crystals.
6H35.53 butterfly Mica, cellophane, etc. are placed between crossed Polaroids
6H35.54 various crystal thicknesses Various crystals are placed between crossed Polaroids including etchings.
6H35.55 cellophane between polarizers
6H35.55 cellophane between polaroids, etc A nice short explanation of interference colors and a kitchen table variation where the polarizer and analyzer are not obvious.
6H35.55 cellophane between polaroids A doubly refraction material between fixed and rotatable Polaroid sheets demonstrates color change with Polaroid rotation.
6H35.55 optical activity in cellophane tape Interesting designs show up when plates with layered cellophane are placed between crossed Polaroids
6H35.56 polarized lion The second polarizer is reflected light from a horizontal plate of glass.
6H35.57 polage Optically active art work - metamorphosis of a cocoon into a butterfly as one Polaroid rotates.
6H35.60 Kerr effect with optical ceramics Replace the nitrobenzene in the Kerr cell with an optical ceramic. An interesting welding goggles application is discussed.
6H35.61 Kerr effect - electrostatic shutter Halowax oil is used between the plates of a capacitor set between crossed Polaroids Charge the capacitor with an electrostatic machine and the transmitted light will vary.
6H35.62 nematic liquid crystals Directions for making cells with thin layers of the liquid crystal MBBA and various optics experiments with the material.
6H35.65 LCD ellement between polaroids
6H35.80 flow birefringence A colloidal solution demonstrates birefringence accompanying flow. Preparation instructions.

50. Polarization by Scattering

6H50.10 sunset with polarizers
6H50.10 sunset with polarizers Use a sheet of Polaroid to check the polarization of scattering from a beam of light passing through a tank of water with scattering particles.
6H50.10 polarization in the sunset demo Rotate a Polaroid in the incoming beam or at the top and side of the tank in the sunset demonstration.
6H50.10 polarization from a scattering tank A mirror at 45 degrees mounted above the scattering tank reflects light scattered up onto the same Polaroid analyzer as the light scattered to the side.
6H50.10 the Tyndall experiment Shine light in one side of a box with a scattering solution and look at the scattered light out in a perpendicular direction.
6H50.10 sunset with polarizers Rotate a Polaroid in the incident beam of the sunset experiment with a mirror oriented at 45 degrees above the tank.
6H50.10 polarization by scattering Add milk to water and show polarization of light scattered from a beam.
6H50.11 scattered laser light Rotate a polarized laser about its own axis as it is scattered from a solution.
6H50.20 polarized scattering in a beaker A beam of light is directed down into a beaker of water containing scattering centers. Rotate a sheet of Polaroid in front of the beaker or in the beam before it enters the water.
6H50.21 scattering tube Direct polarized or unpolarized light up a vertical tube filled with a solution containing scattering centers.
6H50.30 depolarization by diffuse reflection
6H50.30 depolarization by diffuse reflection Reflect a beam of polarized light off a chalk surface through a Polaroid analyzer.
6H50.90 Haidinger's brush
6H50.90 Haidinger's brush Train yourself to detect polarized light with the naked eye. Most people can.


10. The Eye

6J10.10 eye model
6J10.10 eye model
6J10.10 model of the eye Show a take apart model of the eye.
6J10.10 eye model The standard take apart eye model.
6J10.21 water flask model of the eye A large flask filled with water, a little fluorescein, and some external lenses make a model of the eye in near and far sighted conditions.
6J10.21 eye models A spherical lens filled with milky water represents the eyeball. Use a large lens in front of the sphere to show inverted image, near and far sightedness.
6J10.30 blind spot
6J10.30 blind spot Same as L-58.
6J10.30 blind spot Move a white cross toward a white spot on the blackboard while the students close one eye.
6J10.40 inversion of image of retina
6J10.40 inversion of image on retina A small tube has three holes in a triangular pattern drilled in one end and a single hole in the other. Hold the triangular end near the eye and the pattern appears inverted.
6J10.50 astigmatism Look at a chart of radial black lines.
6J10.55 eyeglasses Project an image of concentric circles crossed by radial lines. Place a lens and then a correcting lens over the projection lens.
6J10.60 chromatic aberration of the eye A purple filter is mounted in front of a straight filament lamp.
6J10.80 resolving power of the eye
6J10.80 resolving power The limit of resolving two filaments of an auto headlamp is 25 - 30 feet. ALSO - show slides of the "Navicula" made with green and UV light. Reference.
6J10.81 resolving power with TV
6J10.81 resolving power The camera zooms in on a vertical series of back illuminated double slits, each separated by half the distance of the preceding pair.
6J10.85 Computer generated Sayce chart A valuable background discussion on the resolution of the eye and a computer generated Sayce is shown. An external slit is used to stop down the eye pupil.
6J10.90 locating images by parallax An arrangement is shown for locating real and virtual images by parallax.

11. Physiology

6J11.10 retinal fatigue - color disc
6J11.10 retinal fatigue disc A red light placed behind a rotating disc with a slot at the border of half black and half white appears different colors depending on the direction of rotation.
6J11.10 retinal fatigue - color disk A disk with a notch, half black, half white is spun in front of a red lamp. The lamp appears green or red depending on the direction that the disk spins.
6J11.11 psychological colors A black and white patterned disc appears colored when rotated.
6J11.20 visual fatigue
6J11.20 visual fatigue Stare at a bright spot and a complementary color appears when the spot is turned off.
6J11.22 after image and judgement of size The retinal fatigue image seems to change size.
6J11.30 persistence of vision
6J11.30 persistence of vision
6J11.30 persistence of vision A wheel with circles with phase shifted dots painted on the rim is spun in strobed light.
6J11.32 colored fans Paint a four bladed fan different colors and illuminate with a strobe.
6J11.33 tubeless television Wave a wand at the point a projected image is focused.
6J11.35 integration of light pulses If light intensity from a strobe that appears continuous at 3000 Hz is cut in half, it will appear continuous at about 1700 Hz.
6J11.36 fluorescence of retina Shine an UV source with a visible filter toward the class and notice the luminous haze that covers the field of view.
6J11.37 jarring the eye Stamp your foot while watching a free running oscilloscope.
6J11.40 subjectivity of colors A red spot projected on the wall looks orange or brown if it is surrounded by white or black.
6J11.42 Mach disk A spinning disk appears to have light and dark rings where it should be uniform.
6J11.44 relative black and white A bright light shining on a black screen looks the same as a filtered light shining on a white screen.
6J11.46 most sensitive to green light A stick moved up and down in a projected spectrum will appear to bend at the green light area.
6J11.50 impossible triangles
6J11.50 impossible triangles An optical illusion that depends on viewing angle.
6J11.51 the square that ain't there A cutout of a square in black paper has the illusion of being a white square on top of black paper.
6J11.52 optical illusions Compare the height to the width of a projected hat.
6J11.55 perception Many cases of optical perception are discussed along with some audio and misc. phenomena.
6J11.60 depth perception - special case Apparatus for demonstration of depth perception when due solely to the geometrical disparity of binocular vision.
6J11.70 color blindness
6J11.70 color blindness Use standard color-blindness slides or charts to test the students.


10. Holography

6Q10.01 geometric model for holography A geometrical model which, without sacrificing and physical principles, correctly explains all the major characteristics of holograms.
6Q10.01 introduction to holography Holography at the level of an undergraduate optics course.
6Q10.01 practial holography A "from the beginning" article on holography.
6Q10.01 hologram chapter A chapter on holograms in Meiners by Tung H. Jeong.
6Q10.10 holograms Show a hologram.
6Q10.10 360 degree reflection holography Two methods of making 360 degree reflection holograms.
6Q10.10 360 degree hologram A 360 degree hologram From Edmund Scientific is observed with a Hg lamp and 5461 Angstrom filter.
6Q10.10 holograms A video of a 360 degree transmission hologram.
6Q10.11 single beam 360 degree holograms A very simple arrangement using only a single lens to diverge a laser beam.
6Q10.11 360 degree holograms Simple configuration for a good quality hologram.
6Q10.20 in class holograms
6Q10.21 holographic camera A Gaertner holographic system on an optical table.
6Q10.30 making holographic interferograms Directions for making a simple and cheap plate holder.
6Q10.31 thin-transmission holograms A long article on Abramson ray-tracing holograms.
6Q10.32 thin-transmission holograms A long article on a simple ray-tracing method for thin-transmission holograms.
6Q10.40 rainbow hologram with beaker of wate Use a beaker of water in making the rainbow hologram.
6Q10.42 real time holograms How to make real time good quality interferograms.
6Q10.45 single beam holography Use single beam holography to study mechanical vibrations of an opaque object.
6Q10.45 single beam holography Demonstrate real time holograms that last several hours without glass plate film, etc.
6Q10.50 vibration testing for holography A vertical Michelson interferometer is constructed on the optical table with a pool of mercury as one mirror.
6Q10.60 low cost holography Diagrams of single and double beam methods for making holographs.
6Q10.60 inexpensive holography table Four inches of newspapers and twelve tennis balls support a concrete slab.
6Q10.60 inexpensive spatial filter Substitute a microscope with an x-y stage for a commercial spatial filter.
6Q10.60 inexpensive beam splitters Use dime-store back silvered mirrors for beam splitters for holography.
6Q10.60 inexpensive holography A simple method for making holograms.
6Q10.62 simple hologram arrangement A simple hologram arrangement using ball bearings as beam expander mirrors.
6Q10.63 instant holograms Use Polaroid film for holograms.
6Q10.65 holography for sophmore lab A simple hologram camera.
6Q10.70 beam splitter for holography A double front surface mirror splitter, and the Edmond 41 960 variable density beam splitter.
6Q10.71 rear reflections in plates Put black PVC masking tape on the back of the holographic plate.
6Q10.71 film holder for holography Use a 35 mm camera (both Kodak 649-F and SO-243 films come in 35mm).
6Q10.72 simple hologram verification Method for finding the orientation necessary for viewing and the location of the hologram on the film.
6Q10.72 holography without darkroom Dye the plates with a blue-green attenuator and use laser light in a red poor background.
6Q10.73 diffuser as beam splitter Get by with a single beam expander by using the polished back of the diffuser as a beam splitter.
6Q10.74 holography with 1 mw laser A technique for low exposure holography.
6Q10.75 holography table Construction of an oscillation damped table for holography.
6Q10.76 axial mode detector The output of a fast silicon photodiode is mixed with a uhf signal and the oscillator is tuned to give a 0 Hz difference frequency.
6Q10.77 comment on AJP 44(7),712 Two points of concern.
6Q10.78 Kerr cell driver Modulate a laser beam with a Kerr cell. A circuit for a driver is given.
6Q10.81 computer holograms Generate holograms with an HP 9100B desktop calculator and plotter.
6Q10.82 reconstruction of acoustic holograms A photocopy of a hologram produced from sound waves in air was used to reconstruct an image with laser light and a crude setup.
6Q10.85 holograph of a holograph A virtual image of a lens appears in front of a plate and images of various objects appear behind.
6Q12.10 Abbe demonstrations

20. Physical Optics

6Q20.10 simple Abbe demonstrations Techniques of demonstrating Abbe theory of image formation with simple microscope equipment avoiding use of special Abbe diffraction gratings.
6Q20.10 Abbe's theory of imaging A demonstration to show both image and diffraction pattern formation.
6Q20.11 optical simulation of electron micro An optical setup simulates an electron microscope imaging a two-dimensional lattice. Demonstrates Abbe's theory of the microscope.
6Q20.20 phase reversal effect - single slit Illuminate a double slit with the central maximum from a single slit diffraction pattern, then move the double slit so one slit is illuminated by the central maximum and the other by the first sideband.
6Q20.21 symmetries in Fraunhofer Diffraction The Fraunhofer diffraction patterns for eight apertures each show a central maximum and interesting symmetries.
6Q20.30 spatial filtering An optimum lens configuration for optical spatial filtering for use in amplitude modification techniques.
6Q20.35 mapping transform A distorted image is viewed at 45 degrees to the axes of cylindrical convex and concave mirrors resulting in recognizable mirror images.