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Videos By Chapter
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Inquiries Into Physics



 

 

 

 

Chapter 4: Physics of Matter

  1. Matter
  2. Pressure
  3. Density
  4. Fluid Pressure
  5. Archimedes' Principle
  6. Pascal's Principle
  7. Bernoulli's Principle

 

 

Physics of Matter Videos

Pressure

Discussion
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Bed of Nails
When the pressure is distributed over many nails, each individual nail exerts too small an amount to pop the balloon. When a less dense population of nails is used, each individual nail exerts more pressure and the balloon pops.

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Cartesian Diver
The diver-shaped glass in the cylinder has a small hole in the bottom. When pressure is applied to the rubber membrane covering the cylinder, more water is forced into the diver, causing an change in its average density. When this density is less than water, the diver will float; when it is more the diver sinks. Done carefully, an equilibrium point can be found where the diver is suspended in the water.

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Crush Soda Can
A small amount of water is heated in a soda can until steaming. The can is then quickly put in cool water, mouth side down. The sudden change in temp causes a sudden change in pressure, making atmospheric pressure higher than the can pressure. Thus, the can collapses under the pressure.

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Magdeburg Hemispheres
Two hemispheres are placed together and evacuated. The vacuum seal is very difficult to break!

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Magdeburg Suction Cups
Two suction cups are placed together and compressed to force out all the air. The vacuum seal created when you pull on the suction cups is very difficult to break!

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Marshmallow Man
The air pockets in jet-puffed marshmallows will expand in a vacuum. This makes the marshmallow man get bigger as the pressure inside the bell jar gets lower.

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Shaving Cream in Vacuum
The air pockets in shaving cream will expand in a vacuum. This makes the cream get bigger as the pressure inside the bell jar gets lower.

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Density

Discussion
Streaming
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Cartesian Diver
The diver-shaped glass in the cylinder has a small hole in the bottom. When pressure is applied to the rubber membrane covering the cylinder, more water is forced into the diver, causing an change in its average density. When this density is less than water, the diver will float; when it is more the diver sinks. Done carefully, an equilibrium point can be found where the diver is suspended in the water.

Real

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MPG

Which Will Float, Regular or Diet?
Sugar is a lot more dense than nutrisweet. Thus, a regular soda is more dense than a diet soda. When placed in water, the regular soda, being more dense than water, will sink. The diet, being less dense than water, will float.

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Fluid Pressure

Discussion
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Inverted Liquid
An index card is placed on top cylinder full of water. The cylinder is then inverted. A slight vacuum is created, keeping the index card sealed to the cylinder, thus keeping the water from pouring out.

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Siphon
An initial vacuum (provided by sucking) is enough to begin a flow of liquid from the high beaker to the low one.

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Archimedes' Principle

Discussion
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Hollow Globe in Vacuum
When in the atmosphere, the globe experiences a buoyancy force upward exerted by air. When the air is removed, the buoyancy force is also removed and it is clear that the globe weighs more than the cylinder.

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Pascal's Principle

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Pascal's Vases
Water pressure is dependent on depth only. Thus, two differently shaped vases will show the same pressure at the same depth.

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Bernoulli's Principle

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Bernoulli Envelope
Blowing air over the open end of an envelope causes the two sides to separate due to the lower pressure of the flowing air.

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Fletner Rotator
A moving, spinning spool will curve due to the addition or subtraction of pressure effects. The side that is spinning in the direction of the motion will have a higher pressure than the side spinning away, thus the spool will curve to the low pressure side.

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Floating Ping Pong Ball
A ping pong ball can be "floated" on a stream of air. The air rushing around the ball creates a pressure low enough to lift and support the ball. Even when the ball is not exactly over the air source! As long as the low pressure spot is under the center of mass of the ball, it will stay "afloat".

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Air Over Paper
A stream of air over paper creates a low pressure zone which lifts the paper.

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Ping Pong Ball w/Funnel
When a ping pong ball is placed in a funnel with the air blowing out, the ball won't fall out of the funnel. The rushing air creates an area of low pressure that holds the ball in place.

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Boomerang (outside)
A boomerang will lift and curve when thrown. The lift comes from the shape of the arms and the curve comes from the spinning motion.

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Boomerang (inside)
A boomerang will lift and curve when thrown. The lift comes from the shape of the arms and the curve comes from the spinning motion.

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Curve Ball
A moving, spinning ball will curve due to the addition or subtraction of pressure effects. The side that is spinning in the direction of the motion will have a higher pressure than the side spinning away, thus the ball will curve to the low pressure side.

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Siphon
An initial vacuum (provided by sucking) is enough to begin a flow of liquid from the high beaker to the low one.

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Venturi Tubes
Air flowing through a narrow pipe created a lower pressure than air flowing through a wider pipe.

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